Anonymous: 15th century

Austrian

  • Crucifixion (ca 1450), painting, Austrian. Hallstatt: ? Pfarrkirche Mariae Himmelfahrt. Ref. Stange (1934–1961, XI: no. 225); Rasmussen (2002, Horn). “Figures include a Jew (?) with a little curved horn. There is also a handsome, aristocratic youth beside the cross with a recorder” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.)

Croatian

  • Coronation of the Virgin (1474), fresco, Croatian. Beram: Church of St Mary of the Rocks. Ref. Archiv  Moeck, “from a book on Croatian art (1972)”; Paris RIdIM (1999, detail). The Late Gothic church of St Martin was built in 1431. This church was decorated with frescoes that have been preserved in the eastern part of the new parish church (built at the beginning of the 20th century since the old church was incorporated within the new monumental building). On the right side of an archway, angel musicians sing and play instruments including a lute, a triangle, a pipe & tabor, and two pipes. Of the latter, one is long, slender, cylindrical and has a slightly flared-bell; there is the hint of a window/labium, and although only three fingers of the lower (left) hand seem to be covering their holes, the little finger is not visible. The other pipe is of similar length, but is wider and has a much greater flare to the bell; there are quite enough fingers and holes for this to be a recorder, though a shawm remains a possibility. The late Gothic frescoes in this church were completed by the workshop of a Master Vincent from Kastav on 8 November 1474 commissioned by the confraternity of St Mary’s, testified in the Latin inscription and painted on the southern wall above the side entrance.
  • Missal of Georgii de Topusco: Flute Player (ca 1503), marginal illustration, Croatian. Zagreb: Katedrala Uznesenja Blažene Djevice Marije, Archbishopric Library, MR 354, fol. IX. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Pelc (2013: 44–47). A man in tights and wide-sleeved jerkin plays an ambiguous pipe which might be a transverse- or duct flute. His upper (right) hand seems to be covering at least three holes; his left hand is held above the upper one; four open finger holes are clearly visible below. Thus the evidence points to the recorder as a possibility. This sumptuously illuminated missal, made in Zagreb, is the second of two commissioned by Juraj o Topuskog Archbishopric. It was copied by the priest Matej of Miletinec, and its decoration was executed by two miniaturists, one of them assumed to be Master Johannes Hans Almannus pictor from Germany who never completed his work on it. The missal was later probably taken to Buda, where its illuminations were completed by one of the miniaturists working for Cardinal Toma Bakač, possibly the one known as Bakač’s Monogrammist who was probably of Northern Italian origin (Pelc, loc. cit.)

Cypriot

  • The Birth of Christ (1105–1500), fresco, Cypriot. Asinou, near Nikitari: Church of Panagia Phorbiotissa, ceiling. Ref. Postcard A106: C. Tasaloufo Court Ltd, Cyprus (1999); Rowland-Jones (2006c: 13); Postage Stamp, Cyprus (Christmas 1996). The famous Byzantine church in Asinou, part of UNESCO’s World Cultural Heritage List, is located just under 5 km to the south of the village of Nikitari in the Troodos Mountain range. It is home to perhaps the finest examples of Byzantine mural painting on the island. The church was probably constructed some time between the year 1099 and 1105, possibly as a family chapel for Nicephoros Magistros (who later died here in 1115). The wall and ceiling murals inside range from the 12th century through the 17th century. Fortunately, two-thirds of the original decoration of the church of the 1100’s survives today. One of four panels depicting the life of Christ, shows the Nativity in which a shepherd sits aside playing a somewhat conical, beaked duct flute with a window/labium and six or seven finger holes.
  • Nativity (? 14th century), fresco wall panel, Cypriot. Near Kakopetria: Church of Ayios Nikolaos tis Stegis. Ref. Website: Byzantine Art in Cyprus (2008). The virgin, nursing the Holy Child, is visited by the Three Kings. Behind her are six Saints. In front of her sits Joseph and a shepherd with a bagpipe. Beside her a shepherd sits playing a flared bell pipe, possibly a duct flute. The church of Ayios Nikolaos tis Stegis (St Nicholas of the Roof) stands about 5 km above the village of Kakopetria in the Troodos Mountain range and once belonged to a monastery. It is completely painted with murals dating from the 11th to the 17th century and is considered one of the most interesting Byzantine churches on the island. It gets its name from the steep pitched wooden roof which was built to protect it from the weather.

Danish

  • Maria Lactans Praised by Angel Musicians (ca 1475), fresco, Danish. Detail. Brunnby (Denmark): Brunnby Kyrka. Ref. Møller (1996: 55, pl., col.); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001); Arnold den Teuling (pers. comm., 2011). This simply illustrated painting includes a cylindrical, soprano-sized duct flute (possibly a recorder) with a rough windway/labium and some of the finger holes visible. It is played right hand uppermost with four fingers on or near their holes. Three fingers/finger holes of the left hand are shown before the rest of the instrument is occluded, including the bell. The wall paintings in the nave and the choir were uncovered in 1912. They represent the story of Bethlehem and a remarkable number of saints. In the choir one may see the three northern holy kings Knut, Olof and Erik who have been clothed in the fashion of the late 15th century with tight trousers and short skirt with a belt constricting the shirt. Beneath them there is standing another king, with a banner reading “Sanctus Henricus” identifying him as the German emperor Henry II, crowned in 1014. The paintings were cleaned during a restoration of the church from 1994-1995. They are attributed to an anonymous Master whose work can also be seen in St Mary’s Church in Helsingborg. Prior to the expansion of the Swedish Empire in the second half of the 17th century, Southern Sweden was part of Denmark.

English

  • [Angel Piper] (ca 1400), carved stone corbel, English. Christchurch: Priory Church, right-hand springer of the arched doorway to the crypt in the south ambulatory. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2010). The corbel is in the form of an angel sitting in a boat on a wavy sea playing what appears to be a tenor-sized cylindrical recorder with a slightly flared bell, but damaged in Cromwell’s time. Rowland-Jones observes that a slight horizontal mark at the top of the instrument could represent a window/labium, and that something is left of the hands and fingers and, except for the broken bell-end, of the body of the instrument, including a full complement of finger holes. Both hands have been drawn away, especially the lowermost (left) hand, from what is otherwise a normal playing position, as if to make it clear to viewers that this is a recorder rather than the more familiar flageol. This apparent display of an instrument suggests that it could have been new at the time. We see the same desire to show of the instrument in the Pere Serra group of altarpiece paintings.
  • [Piper] (ca 1400), stone carving, English. Elkstone: Elkstone Parish Church, tower. Ref. Recorder & Music 9 (6): front cover, monochrome (1980). A piper plays what has been said to be a ‘recorder’ but which appears to be a double-bore reed instrument with two rows of finger holes, a pirouette, decorative turnings and flared bell.
  • Panel (1390–1404), wall painting, English. London: Westminster Abbey, Chapter House. Ref. Montagu (1988); Rowland-Jones (1999c: 33; 2006c: 13). This damaged panel shows the lower part of a cylindrical pipe which Jeremy Montagu suggests may be a recorder, despite the bulging cheeks of the player. Kings play psaltery, rebecs, harp, cymbals, organetto, crwth (crowd); angels play lute, nakers, etc.
  • Angel Musician (ca 1415), England. King’s Lynn: Chapel of St Nicholas, carved chestnut-wood roof beam  (South 9). Ref. Montagu & Montagu (1998: 7, plate 12; 8–13, b&w); Rowland-Jones (1999c: 33, fig. 7, b&w); Website: Churches of East Anglia, Norfolk (2016, col.). The chapel of St Nicholas, in existence since the mid-12th century, was dependent on the parish church of St Margaret’s. An early Gothic chapel was built shortly after 1200. Most of the current church’s construction dates from 1421–1423 (chancel/choir) through the late 15th century (south porch). On one of the roof-beam South 9 a tenor recorder is played left-handed, 2 finger holes visible above the right [uppermost] hand and 2 between the hands … ca 1415.  ” … … it is very clear that the angels have been ‘touched up’ in restorations. In Georgian times there was a gallery around the church, taken down in the Victorian period when, I think, some restoration of the roof carvings was carried out. The instrument’s window and labium area is too sharply defined to be original and the mouthpiece is curious; both features to me lack conviction though I have no reason to suspect that the instrument was not originally a recorder” (Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm. 1999). The roof is in poor condition and the 22 carved angels sheltering beneath it and their musical instruments are threatened and in need of intervention, divine or otherwise.
  • The Angel and the Shepherds of Bethlehem (ca 1430), woodcarving, ca 62 cm high, English. Exeter: Cathedral Church of Saint Peter, Lady Chapel, NW corner. Ref. Postcard, Walter Scott, Bradford (undated, b&w); Friends of Exeter Cathedral (1946: 10–11, b&w); Recorder & Music Magazine 2 (11): cover, b&w (1968); Poston (1965: cover, col.); Crispin (1968: 359); Hunt (1977: 10); Montagu & Montagu (1998: pl. 108, b&w); Rowland-Jones (1999c, b&w). Shows shepherds and angels at the Nativity with one of the shepherds holding a large cylindrical duct flute which surely must be a recorder, given the offset position of the lowest finger hole. Variously dated as 14th-century (Hunt, loc. cit.; Crispin loc. cit., Poston, loc. cit.), and ca 1430 (Friends, loc. cit.) Purchased in a London shop but said to have been part of the stalls removed early in the 19th century (Friends, loc. cit.), but has also been thought be of Flemish origin (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Angel Musicians (early 15th century), stained glass, English. Window 1 and Window 2. Warwick: Collegiate Church of St Mary, Beauchamp chantry chapel, window. Ref. Buckle (2010); Website: flickr, Glass Angel’s photostream (2009, col.) & groenling’s photostream (2012, col.) In each of two adjacent windows two angels play conical pipes, two small and two larger. In another window, two angels play slender pipes. These might all represent duct flutes, possibly recorders. Other windows depict angels singing and playing pipe & tabor, bagpipe, pibcorns, organetto, organ, rebec, crwths (crowds), marine trumpet, lutes, psaltery, harpsichord, clavichord, and what appears to be a set of tuned bowls. The chapel, situated at the south-east of the Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, was built at the behest of Richard Beauchamp (1382–1439), one of the greatest warrior-statesman of his generation and also a great patron of music.
  • Coronation of the Virgin (early 15th century), alabaster relief, 41 × 29 cm, English. Bruges: Museum, Inv. 306. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). On either side the seated Virgin, sit God the Father (who appears to be bellowing at her) and Christ (who has lost his head). At her feet are two angel musicians playing bagpipe and a more or less cylindrical pipe, possibly a recorder (the mouthpiece and other details are not quite clear enough to be sure).
  • Angel Musician (1447), carved misericord, English. Ludlow: St Laurence’s Church, north side, second from the West. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2004); Website: flickr, alanlorduk’s photostream (2012, col.) An angel plays a pipe. Unfortunately his right forearm with the whole of the upper section of the instrument is broken off, leaving only the mouthpiece tip between his relaxed lips. The body of the instrument is clutched by his left hand, below which can be seen a small portion of the body of the instrument, showing it is very slightly conical but widens a bit towards the bell end. This, however, is completely visible between the players legs, indicating the instrument was probably of tenor size. There is a fairly abrupt bell flare with three incised rings close together before the final widening of the bell. No finger holes are visible. This may represent a shawm or a recorder.
  • [Piper] (ca 1450), stone carving, English. Weston-on-Avon: All Saint’s Church, SE aspect of the tower. Ref. Recorder & Music 5 (5): front cover, monochrome (1976). The bust of a man in a cloak blowing a pipe which has been considered a recorder. However, no window/labium is visible, indeed there is what appears to be the pirouette of a shawm. A hole at the bell-end is also reminiscent of the shawm rather than a recorder.
  • Shepherd Playing a Recorder, carved corbel, (ca 1451), English. Stamford: Basilica of St John the Evangelist, nave wall. Ref. Montagu & Montagu (1998: pl. 106, b&w). Shows a ‘duct flute with a very clear mouth’ (Montagu & Montagu, loc. cit.) Another corbel supporting the nave wall posts shows a double ‘pair of similar duct flutes’ (Montagu & Montagu, loc. cit.) “The first (pl. 106) is not a sharp picture, but adequate. The player, probably a shepherd, has the end of the instrument in his mouth; the window labium is (to me!) convincing , so perhaps this one has not been restored. The player has a staff in his left hand, and the right holds the lower body of the instrument allowing three upper holes to be seen, and one, perhaps slightly offset, below his hand. The instrument is of alto size” (Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm. 1999).
  • The Myrrour of the World of the World: Music (1480)  woodcut, published in Westminster by William Caxton. Ref. Princeton University Library (electronic resource), Image 47; University of Glasgow, Sp. Coll. Hunterian Bv.2.30, folio c3v – 2nd edn (1489). A woman in a long dress and a tiered hat sings from a sheet of music. She is accompanied by a man in leggings, a jerkin and a flowerpot hat on a tenor-sized cylindrical duct-flute the window/labium of which is clearly depicted. Three holes below the player’s fingers are visible, the lowermost obviously smaller than those above. Gautier (or Gossouin) de Metz was a French priest and poet known primarily known for writing the encyclopedic poem L’Image du Monde by Gautier de Metz (13th century, French).  Evidence from the earliest editions of this work suggests his actual name was Gossouin rather than Gautier. L’Image du Monde was originally written in 1245 in Latin in the form of 6,594 rhymed octosyllabic verses in three parts, some illustrated. It was derived from various Latin sources, chiefly from the twelfth century Imago mundi, compiled by Honorius Augustodunensis. First translated into English in 1481 from a prose version of the French and published by William Caxton, this is generally cited as the first English printed book with illustrations. The latter are crude but effective woodcuts, probably made by an English craftsman. A second edition was printed around 1490, and a  third was in 1527 by Lawrence Andrewe, though the first edition was seemingly the most carefully prepared. The translation was largely faithful to the original but introduced more references to English places and people.
  • Durham Cathedral Muniments, Magnum Reertorium fol. 43. v.: Illuminated initial ‘P’: Archdeacon of Durham Cathedral (ca 1463), English. Durham: University Library, Archives & Special Collections. Ref. Alan Piper to Anthony Rowland-Jones (2002, pers. comm.) The Magnum Repertorium is an inventory of the principal charters of Durham Cathedral Priory, compiled ca 1463, and the detail in the initial to the section concerning the archdeaconry of Northumberland. It depicts the archdeacon and, as the monks of Durham did not generally enjoy good relations with the holders of this office, it is likely that portraying him playing a pipe was intentionally unflattering (Piper, loc. cit.) The Archdeacon plays one-handedly a small, flared-bell duct flute, probably a recorder although only five finger holes are visible.
  • Coat of Arms of Margaret Vernon, Wife of Sir William Vernon of Haddon (m. 1467), three stones inlaid with brass. Tong (Shropshire): Church of St Bartholomew the Apostle, Golden Chapel, stone let into the floor. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm. 2006); Hunter (1966: 18); Website: flickr, groenling’s photostream (2012, col.)
    • The first shield contains two recorders, an allusion to the Pype family. “The recorders are placed with mouthpieces pointing towards the upper left and right corners of shield, almost meeting at its lowest point. Around the recorders are seven small crosses of the type known in heraldry as crosses crosslet” (Hunter, loc. cit.)
    • The second shield contains the coats of arms of husband and wife together marshalled: the coat of arms showing recorders appears here as the right half of the shield, indicating that it was the coat of arms of the wife, Margaret” (Hunter, loc. cit.)
    •  The third shield contains  a number of elements, amongst them the arms of the Pipe family with two forshortened recorders with holes for four fingers surrounded by nine crosses crosslet, as well as  those of Sir William Vernon and others.

Hunter also notes “… one would have hoped to discover a family that was famous for the quality of the recorder playing of its members but, instead, one finds nothing more than the allusive association of Pype and the form of the instrument.” And yet the recorders on these shields are  really most interesting in themselves. They are in one piece with beak and window area decorated with incised rings reminiscent of the Dordrecht recorder, but with slightly flared bells; and the paired holes for the lowermost finger are clearly depicted on both instruments. Indeed, these depictions give every indication that their creator, at least, had a first-hand acquaintance with the recorder of the time. The pipes on the ‘marshalled’ arms are less well informed. Sir William Vernon of Haddon (1418–1467) was an English landowner, politician, and soldier who held the posts of Treasurer of Calais and Knight-Constable of England.

  • Coat of Arms of the Vernon Family (15th century), stone arch. Bakewell (Derbyshire): Haddon Hall, doorway in the Curtain Wall. Ref. Walter Bergmann Collection (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers comm., 2006: print b&w; slide, col.); Hunter (1966: 18). A shield showing pairs of recorders forming a chevron, with mouthpieces close together, an allusion to the Pype family. Margaret Pipe (or Pype) of Staffordshire married Sir William Vernon (1321-1367), who became night constable of England under Edward III, and their son was Sir Henry Vernon (b. 1345) who built much of the present Haddon Hall. He dutifully added his mother’s family escutcheon to his own coat of arms and these appear frequently in the older part of the house (but not in the late 16th-century Long Gallery). The Pype heraldry is ‘Azure, crusule, two pipes chevron ways, Or’. One writer suggests that the frequency of display is to confirm the Vernon’s interest in retaining the Pype properties in Staffordshire!
  • Coat of Arms of the Vernon Family (15th century), stained glass. Bakewell (Derbyshire): Haddon Hall, Chapel. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2008). Unquartered shield showing the arms of the Vernon Family, two recorders forming a chevron, with mouthpieces close together, surrounded by eight small crosses of the type known in heraldry as ‘crosses crosslet’. Note that the recorders here are upside down. They are poorly depicted but are unlikely to have been restored.
  • Coat of Arms of the Vernon Family (late 15th century), stone panel. Detail. Bakewell (Derbyshire): Vernon Chapel, Parish Church of All Saints, tomb of John Vernon. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2008). Coat of arms comprising a pair of recorders forming a chevron, with mouthpieces close together, surrounded by nine small crosses of the type known in heraldry as ‘crosses crosslet’.
  • Coat of Arms of the Vernon Family (? late 15th century), stone carving. Bakewell (Derbyshire): Haddon Hall, South front parapet. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm, 2008). A quartered shield, the lower right hand quarter showing the Pype arms, two recorders forming a chevron, with mouthpieces close together, surrounded by eight small crosses of the type known in heraldry as ‘crosses crosslet’. Although the interior is here, the Long Gallery, the external walls may have been part of the earlier building.
  • Angel Musician (ca 1460), wood carving. Manchester: Cathedral, nave, decorating one of the wooden support corbels for the roof, between the springers for the window arches. Ref. Hunt (1977: 9); Paris RIdIM (1999); Anthony Rowland-Jones (2003, pers. comm.); Website: Visitor Centre, Manchester Cathedral (2005, col.) The six angel musicians on each side were restored and gilded in 1950. German bombing (1940) and the IRA explosion (1996) have not affected the carvings on the North side. Those on the South side play mainly string instruments; the six on the North side all play wind instruments, namely portative organ, shawm, bagpipes with arm bellows and a single chanter, Irish-style bagpipes with a chanter and one drone, trumpet and (at the West Tower, end) a recorder. The recorder is of tenor size, cylindrical except for a very slight bell flare. The player has relaxed cheeks and plays right-hand lowermost in a good recorder-playing position, all fingers down. Although all the Cathedral records have been lost, there is a belief that Margaret Beaufort (wife of the Duke of Buckingham) paid for the angel carvings ca 1460.
  • [Musician] (15th century), stone carving. Beverley: St Mary’s Church. Ref. Galpin 1910: 197); Hunt (1977: 9); Montagu (1998: 97–98); Website, fotoLIbRA: Image FOT1011321 (2012, col.) Quite a number of the many musician carvings in St Mary’s and in Beverley Minster have been badly restored. None can be securely said to represent a recorder (Rowland-Jones, pers. comm.)
  • Angel Musician (15th century), carved stone corbel, England. Salisbury: Church of St Thomas & St Edmund. An angel, whose wings form the top of the corbel, plays a cylindrical pipe, right hand uppermost. What appears to be a window/labium and four finger holes are clearly visible, but the foot of the instruments seems to be missing. This is likely to be a recorder. Other similar corbels in the church depict angels playing bagpipe, a small drum, psaltery, rebec, harp, organetto, and long-necked lute.
  • Bear Playing a Pipe (?15th century), stone gargoyle, English. Ecclesfield (Yorkshire), St Mary’s Church, exterior. Ref. Website: Anges Musiciens (2010, col.) A bear plays a narrowly conical pipe. Apart from several finger holes, no details are present, so this could represent a duct flute. Construction of the present day church began in 1478 and was completed around 1500.
  • Piper (15th century), stone gargoyle, England. Elkstone: Church of St John the Evangelist, great west tower, external wall. Ref. Website: Anges Musiciens (2010, col.) Two wild-eyed figures atop the massive buttresses of the tower play musical instruments. One plays an absurd pipe with two rows of finger holes. Perhaps the sculptor was extrapolating from the recorder’s double-holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand thinking that all the holes were doubled. The other musician plays a lute. Elkstone is in the Cotswolds. Its church dates from the 11th century, but the great west tower was built in the early 15th century.
  • Chained Apes Playing Pipes, (15th or 16th century), carved wooden misericord, England. Norwich: Cathedral. Ref. Website: Misericords of the World (2014, col.) An Ape in a hood squeezes a howling dog that is being birched by a chained ape; another dog looks on grinning. Each of the two supporters depicts a chained ape in a roundel blowing a pipe. That on the right is obscure; the one on the left could easily represent a recorder.
  • Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds, stained glass panel, mid-15th-century. Norfolk: St Peter Mancroft, East Window. Ref. King (2006); Website: Norfolk Stained Glass (2016); Charles Rowland-Jones ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (2016, pers. comm.) The beautiful church of St Peter Mancroft contains what is generally accepted as the finest stained glass in Norfolk, dating from the 15th century to the 20th. The majority of the medieval glass has been relocated to the east window. Each of its 42 panels can be explored here . Watched by Joseph (who looks exhausted), Mary nurses the Christ Child. At their feet, a woman dries some linen before a small fire in an ornate grate. They are watched by animals, angels, and three shepherds who play musical instruments. The lowest shepherd plays double pipes, the central one blows a pibcorn and the top one playing a cylindrical duct flute (possibly intended to represent a recorder), his right hand apparently shading the bell end of the instrument, his top hand out of sight The window/labium is clearly depicted, but no finger holes are visible. Curiously, one of the double-pipes shows six finger holes in line and a lowermost one offset to the others above which the player’s little finger is raised; neither of the pipes has any sign of a window/labium.

Flemish

  • Angel Musicians (1408/9), unrestored stained glass. Detail. Bourges: Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, Chapel of St Solange (bay 26, south ambulatory, lateral chapel), in small flamboyant upper tracery openings. Ref. Rowland-Jones (pers com.; 2006c: 9). Shows clearly an angel playing a duct flute (possibly intended to be a recorder) with nine or ten holes visible, next to the arms of Alexander V, Pope (from Berry) only during 1408/9 (Rowland-Jones 1999c: 33, fig. 6, b&w). After the accession in 1392 of Jean, Duke of Berry, brother of the King of France, Bourges became one of the foremost cultural centres in Europe.
  • Angel Musicians (15th century), stained glass. Detail 1; Detail 2. Bourges:  Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, Chapel Le Roy, in small flamboyant tracery openings. Ref. Website, flickr: Wilfried Praet’s photostream (2016, col.)  Two openings both show clearly an angel playing a duct flute with beak and window/labium clearly depicted, possibly intended to be recorders, since in each case there appears to be a hole for the little finger of the player’s lowermost hand. Praet considers these to be small shawms, but that is clearly not the case.
  • [Untitled] (before 1430), stone carvings. Aachen: Dom, apse (recently restored). 14 carvings, roughly life-sized, of angel musicians, only a few feet from the ground and very easily seen. The instruments include harp, fiddle, rebec, lute, symphony, drums, double pipe and a single soprano-sized pipe (possibly a duct flute, window not clear). The latter is cylindrical, except for marked flange at the bell end, and it is played with the right hand lower; all fingers are shown down, including the right-hand little finger, presumably covering holes, with the thumb under in correct position for a recorder (Rowland-Jones, pers. comm.)
  • Triptych: centre panel (ca 1450). Antwerp. Ref. Archiv Moeck. The Holy Family is serenaded by musicians who sing and play lutes and a small duct flute (possibly a recorder).
  • Book of Hours: Annunciation to the Shepherds (ca 1440), Flemish (probably from Ghent or Bruges). Brussels: Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, Cat. 100 MS 9798, f.61v). Ref. Hottoit (1982: pl. 62); Arnold den Teuling (pers. comm., 2011). Three shepherds are shown, one playing a Dordrecht-style duct flute (four finger holes and the window/labium of which are visible) to some indifferent sheep. His left (upper) hand covers the remaining holes, except possibly the first. His right hand is across the open end of the instrument, his first finger and thumb on each side of the foot, suggesting that this technique is for end-stopping (doubtless to bring one of the second-octave notes into tune). One of his companions, who seems to be supporting himself with his houlette, has a small cylindrical duct flute (with two finger holes above and two below) stuffed in his belt. The third shepherd seems to be blind as he is holding the tail of the recorder-player’s snood with his right hand and with his left the hand of the second shepherd.
  • Breviary from the Library of Philip the Good: Jesse Tree (ca 1455), Flemish. Brussels: Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, 9511, fol. 15r (13.5 × 13.5 cm). Ref. Hottoit (1982: pl. 40, cat. 78). Twelve music-making kings, including one on the right with a double duct flute and one with a pipe and tabor, the pipe, however, has too many holes for one hand and looks much more like a Dordrecht-style recorder.
  • From Christine de Pisan: L’Epître d’Othéa, edited by Jan Miélot (after 1460, Lille), Flemish. Brussels: Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, 9392, fol. 29v (11.5 × 14.5 cm). Ref. Hottois (1982: pl. 36, cat. 199). King Midas gets donkey’s ears by making a false judgement between Phoebus Apollo playing a harp and Pan, playing a recorder with a clear window/labium all fingers of the lowermost (right) hand covering their holes, and a flared and decorated bell. In the text, the latter is called frestel and flaiol, and the harp is called a lyre. Curiously, both Apollo and Pan are winged. This is a later edition of the original in the British Library listed below (French, ca 1410). It is possibly from the library of Philippe the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders, Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut, who had a residence in Brussels.
  • Mercury and Argus, from L’Epître d’Othéa, edited by Jan Miélot (after 1460, Lille), Flemish. Brussels: Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, 9392, f. 33v. Ref. Boragno (1998: 13, b&w); Warburg Institute (2000). Within a wickerwork enclosure, Mercury enchants Argus (with his many eyes) by playing a flared-bell duct flute (the beak, window/labium and several finger holes are clearly visible), a scimitar at his side. Between them Io (as a heifer) looks innocently up at Mercury. To the right Mercury is seen beheading Argus who lies before him on the ground. An angel flies incongruously above, and in the background are the turrets of a castle.
  • Apocalypse of Margaret of York: Angels of Plagues (ca 1475), tinted grisaille miniature, margins decorated with a border of floreate rinceaux, Flemish. Detail. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library & Museum, MS M.484 fol. 75v. Ref. Website: CORSAIR (2011, col.) An illustration of Revelations 15: 1–2. At left, on the shore, four of seven angels hold vials. At right, standing on water, three of four men play musical instruments including tambourine, shawm, lute and a long pipe with a flared bell, possibly a recorder since the artist has gone to some trouble to indicate the reed of the shawm. The Apocalypse was made for Margaret of York (1446–1503), wife (1468) of Charles the Bold, duc de Bourgogne; its editor and scribe was David Aubert; the illuminations, probably painted in Ghent, have been attributed to a Master within the circle of the Master of Mary of Burgundy.
  • Apocalypse of Margaret of York: Lamb Taking the Book (ca 1475), tinted grisaille miniature on vellum, margins decorated with a border of floreate rinceaux, Flemish. Detail. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library & Museum, MS M.484 fol. 31r. Ref. Website: CORSAIR (2011, col.) An illustration of Revelation 5: 6–8. Within a cloud-edged mandorla, Christ, his body partially draped, holds open a book with seven seals on his lap. He is seated on a throne next to God the Father who holds his sceptre in his right hand. A lamb, nimbed, stands on its hind legs, its front legs touching the seals of book. Three winged Beasts and a winged angel flank the mandorla. Below are the Twenty-four Elders, crowned, some playing musical instruments, including rebec, horn (?), portative organ, harp, lute, triangle, shawm, and two cylindrical pipes, possibly recorders of tenor size. The Apocalypse was made for Margaret of York (1446–1503), wife (1468) of Charles the Bold, duc de Bourgogne; its editor and scribe was David Aubert; the illuminations, probably painted in Ghent, have been attributed to a Master within the circle of the Master of Mary of Burgundy.
  • Book of Hours (fragment): Moses Receiving the Tablets of the LawAngel Musicians (ca 1480), foliated text and illumination on vellum, 19.5 × 14.2 cm, Flemish. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, M.959, folio 6r. Ref. Ford (1988: #828); Website: Pierpont Morgan Library and Museum (2016, col.) On the top of a hill, the half-figure of God, appears on cloud holding the Tables of Law. Moses, horned, kneels on the hill between two rocky outcrops. He extends his arms toward the Tables of Law. In the background are two large tents around which figures stand. All is within an historiated initial H. The margins surrounding the text and its initial are decorated with a border of illusionistic architecture inhabited by eight angels wearing fillets surmounted by crosses,  Six of the angels play musical instruments, namely a psaltery, a harp (with about nine strings), a lute (with a plectrum), a straight trumpet, and two wind instruments. Of the latter instruments, that on the left lacks a window/labium and thus probably represents a shawm. That on the right, which has a hint of a window/labium and appears to be beaked, might represent a recorder. One of the two remaining angels appears to be singing or reciting; the other gazes out of a window. The illuminations on this page resemble the early style of the Master of Mary of Burgundy.
  • Emperor Maximilian Playing Chess (ca 1480), tapestry, Flemish (Tournai). Riggisberg: Abegg-Stiftung, Inv; 95. Ref. Besseler (1931: 210); Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 16 (1959: fig. 2, opposite p. 32, detail); Bowles (1983: 141); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). By the Late Middle Ages it was no longer the courtly romance but rather the game of chess that provided the best allegory for an aristocratic, ideal society. In this tapestry, the Emperor Maximilian and Empress Mary of Burgundy play chess while their courtiers play instruments and sing. Bowles (loc. cit.) identifies the instruments as ‘harp, lute, recorder and small fiddle’. The ‘recorder’ certainly is a duct flute which could be a one-handed pipe (Rowland-Jones, pers. comm.)
  • Book of Hours, Use of Sarum (The Hastings Hours, or London Hours of William Lord Hastings): Lovers/Musicians on a Barge with a Cityscape (ca 1480), illumination surrounding text with historiated S, 16.5 × 12.0 cm, Flemish. London: British Library, Ms Add. 54782, fol. 54. Ref. Basler Jahrbuch für historische Musikpraxis 8: 37 (1984); Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Website: British Library, Digitised Manuscripts (2016). In a boat a woman plays a lute and a man plays a slender cylindrical pipe one-handed and so probably not meant to represent a recorder as Rasmussen (loc. cit.) indicates. The boatman is taking the opportunity to drink from an earthenware flask, perhaps a wry allusion to the text, which comprises a memorial to St Erasmus of Formia, the patron saint of sailors – and abdominal pain! Come to think of it, the lady looks a trifle queasy, too.
  • Altarpiece: Scenes From the Life of Christ & From the Life of the Virgin (1480–1490), carved oak (painted), 310 × 170 cm, Flemish (15th century). Detail. Ergué-Gabéric: Chapelle Notre Damme de Kerdévot. Ref. Website: Retable flamand de Kerdévot (2010). This altarpiece from the 15th century, restored in the 17th century, has six panels including four devoted to the Life of the Virgin (Nativity, Dormition of Mary, Burial of Christ, Coronation of the Virgin) and two further panels (added in the seventeenth century), representing the Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation of the Child in the Temple. Two additional panels depicting the Baptism of Our Lord and Our Lady of Mercy are attributed to Pierre Le Déan (sculptor Quimper) and date from the seventeenth century (circa 1680). In Coronation of the Virgin, an angel behind the organist plays a more-or-less cylindrical recorder with a flared bell; beside God, two more play lute and harp. In the Nativity panel, Mary reaches down to Christ in his crib watched by a woman with a lantern. In the background, behind a wicker fence, three shepherds watch the scene, one of them playing a recorder. Beneath a decrepit porch are two more shepherds, one playing a bagpipe and another, hooded, appearing behind a small window. A small angel kneels before the Child. The ox and ass look on. Unfortunately, this altarpiece was stolen in 1973. Although recovered, it was severely damaged. In particular, the Nativity has lost five of it statuettes, namely the Virgin Mary, Christ in his Crib, St Joseph, the Shepherd Piper, and a Woman Carrying a Lantern. The stolen little angel has been recovered and reinstated in its place. Fortunately we have photographs taken before the theft.
  • Breviary of Queen Isabella of Castile: Coronation of the Virgin, with the Arms of Francisco de Rojas in the Lower Margin (c. 1497), Flemish. London: British Library, Add. Ms 18851, fol. 437r. Ref. Brussels MRBA Bulletin 9 (1960: 90); Revue du Louvre 17 (1967: 350); Kren (1983: 42); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). The Virgin is crowned by God the Son, and God the Father (wearing a beehive-shaped crown), whilst  the Holy Spirit (in the form of a dove) hovers above. Around the throne angels play fiddle (or rebec), lute, harp and small cylindrical pipe, probably a duct flute (possibly a recorder). Add. Ms 18851 includes a breviary of Dominican use, known as the Breviary of Isabella of Castile after its owner. Folio 437r forms part of the following sanctorale (proper of the saints).
  • Mercury and Argus, from Ovide Moralisé (1484), woodcut, Flemish (Bruges). Ref. Rowland-Jones (2000c: fig. 4). Mercury, in winged helmet and winged sandals and holding an elaborate caduceus in his right hand, plays a Virdung-style flared-bell recorder in his left hand. The labium/windway and six finger holes of the recorder are clearly depicted with a seventh covered by his index finger. Before him, Argus sits drowsily. A cock (symbol of watchfulness) at Mercury’s feet struts triumphantly.
  • Madonna and Child (1490–1500), Flemish. Munich: Alte Pinakothek. Ref. Website: flautotraverso.it To the right of the Virgin and Christ-child three angel-musicians sing and play organ and a tenor-sized cylindrical pipe, probably a recorder.
  • Jesse Tree with Musical Angels (1497), tempera, Flemish. Detail. Aelst: Kerk Sint-Martinus, apse chapel, ceiling. Ref. Website: Konklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium (2010, col.) The Jesse Tree is surrounded by angels, two of whom play lute and a flared recorder, left hand uppermost. The beak and window/labium are clearly depicted and all fingers of the lowermost hand are covering their holes.
  • Tubal-inventor-Musicae, from Description des festivités organisées en l’honneur du mariage de Philippe le Beau et Jeanne de Castille (1496), Flemish. Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ms 78 D5, fol.59. Ref. Bowles (1983: pl. 128); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). A tableau-vivant. A woman plays a lute and a man plays a recorder. At least three sing.
  • St. Luke Painting the Virgin and Child, from Description des festivités organisées en l’honneur du mariage de Philippe le Beau et Jeanne de Castille (1496), Flemish. Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz [State Museum of Prussian Art], Ms 78 D5, fol.59. Ref. Bowles (1977: 137); Rasmussen (1999, Lute. “A tableau-vivant. Civic (?) musicians represent angels playing small house organ, lute and recorder.” Rasmussen (loc. cit.)
  • Libro de horas de Leonor de la Vega : Ad vulnus dextri pedis  (> 1498), illuminated manuscript, Flemish. Loc. Biblioteca Nacional de España (BnE), Call No. Vitr/24/2, f. 30a. Ref. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (accessed 2021: page 60, col.) This codex was sent from Brussels by D. Diego Ramírez de Villaescusa, ambassador in Flanders (1498), to the father of the poet Garcilaso de la Vega, ambassador in Rome. It contains numerous full-page miniatures representing religious scenes, and a portrait of the former owners which have been attributed to the Flemish miniaturist Willem Vrelant (a. 1430-1481). This page contains a text panel with an illuminated initial ‘A’ depicting the crucifixion wound to Christ’s right foot. The marginal decorations include the usual leaves and flowers, and a caped and elaborately hatted individual who looks askance whilst playing a recorder with a slightly flared bell, left-hand uppermost, the window/labium clearly depicted and the lower two finger holes visible beneath the lower hand.
  • Libro de horas de Leonor de la Vega : Madonna and Child  (> 1498), illuminated manuscript, Flemish. Loc. Biblioteca Nacional de España (BnE), Call No. Vitr/24/2, f. 40a. Ref. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (accessed 2021: page 79, col.)  This codex was sent from Brussels by D. Diego Ramírez de Villaescusa, ambassador in Flanders (1498), to the father of the poet Garcilaso de la Vega, ambassador in Rome. It contains numerous full-page miniatures representing religious scenes, and a portrait of the former owners which have been attributed to the Flemish miniaturist Willem Vrelant (a. 1430-1481). This page contains a panel depicting Mary seated with the child Jesus on her lap reaching for the apple his mother holds. The angel Gabriel has dropped by to see how the family are getting on and has brought his lily with him. And in the foreground two angel musicians play organetto and vielle. Amongst the usual marginal decorations of leaves and flowers a jester in a blue hooded cape plays a recorder accompanied by his assistant on lute. The recorder is narrowly flared and is played right hand uupermost. The window/labium is clearly visible and there are several holes beneath the left beneath the lower (left) hand.
  • Musical Angel (early 15th century), carved stone tomb, French. Chaise-Dieu: Église St-Nectaire. Ref. Arnold den Teuling (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm., 2006). The tomb has an arch with 10–12 musical angels. One resembles the Thann angel, but no markings on the instrument are visible, other than a possible window/labium which could be the result of wear or damage. This may be a recorder, but more information is required.
  • King with a Recorder (mid-15th century), Flemish. From the brass tomb plate of the Bishop of Büow. Schwerin: Dom. Ref. Wiese (1988: fig. 27, b&w); Archiv. Moeck. A king plays a cylindrical duct flute (probably recorder).
  • Nativity, (15th century), Flemish. Brussels: Galerie Arents. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.) There is another version (or a copy) of this in the Collection of Fernand Stuyck, Antwerp. Mary prays and Joseph holds out his hand to the Christ Child as a cow looks on, eyes wide. Angels kneel on either side, and two angel musicians play lute and a cylindrical recorder. Not seen.
  • Backgammon Board, decorated borders (15th century), Franco-Flemish. Florence: Museo Nazionale de Bargello. Ref. Brown & Lascalle (1972: 144–145). In one panel a woman and a man play harp and a conical pipe – ‘shawm or recorder’ (Brown & Lascalle (loc. cit.)
  • Triptych, central panel: Nativity (15th century), 84.0 × 36.00 cm, Flemish. Ghent: Museum voor Schone Kunsten. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). Mary prays before the Christ Child watched by two diminutive angels. Joseph holds what appears to be a musical pipe, perhaps given to him as a gift for his son. Other visitors look on from the side and through open windows behind. Two angels hover overhead. It is easy to imagine that the top of the ‘pipe’ is beak-shaped and slightly rounded; there seems to be a window-labium area darker than the rest of the instrument; and one can just make out three finger holes. However, close examination shows that this is far more likely to be a candle rather than a musical instrument!
  • Illumination (15th century), Flemish. San Lorenzo: El Escorial, Library, Lat. Vit.-1, Apocalypse f.5v. Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “Two small duct flutes lie on a table. They are identical, each with a clear beak, window/labium and four finger holes. Although short and quite fat for their size they have a fair amount of bell flare and bore flare. There is one incised ring on each, just before the bell end. The finger holes are spaced equally down the body of the instrument; as four finger holes would not make a satisfactory flageolet unless there are two thumb holes underneath (and this seems too early for the French style flageolet) these may be attempts at recorder representations.” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Courtiers from Geldern (15th century), pen and brown wash, Flemish. Detail. Uppsala: Universitetsbibliotek, U.B.H.Ned.74 Ref. Postcard: Uppsala Universitetsbibliotek (2000); RIdIM Stockholm (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000, 2001). This unfinished drawing could be interpreted as an attempt at wife-swapping! Whilst his lady is busily engaged in gossiping with another woman, a young man points with a small duct flute (possibly a recorder) to another lady, whose sexual warmth is stimulated by her lap dog. Incredible as it may seem, lapdogs were proscribed by the Church for this very reason! The mouthpiece of the instrument is rather indefinite, but the window/labium is clear and three upper finger holes show above the owner’s hand, one below and a further hole sightly higher, almost underneath the instrument (although this may be a mark on the paper). There is no bell flare. The young man’s recorder indicates, as so often elsewhere, male sexual desire. Note the husband’s disapproval, and the knowing look on the other lady’s face! This drawing may have been an illustration to a novella.
  • Mercury and Argus, from a work by Christine de Pisan (15th century), ? Flemish. Brussels: Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België. Ref. Warburg Institute, London (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). Mercury sits king-like on a large throne, holding in his left hand, like a sceptre, a very prominent duct flute. It is of alto size and shape, but only three finger holes are visible towards the bottom end. Argus lies outstretched, dead on the ground before him. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000).
  • Shepherds Making Music (late 15th century), tapestry, Flemish. ?Munich: Location unknown. Ref. Postcard, Ackermanns Kunstverlag, Munich (1965, col.); Walter Bergmann (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm., 2003). Watched by a shepherd wearing gloves, his crook over his shoulder, two shepherds play fiddle and a duct flute respectively. The duct flute is curved and expands continuously from beak to foot in the manner of a gemshorn; it is decidedly rectangular in cross-section! All fingers of the player’s lowermost (right) hand are covering their holes.
  • Misericord (late 15th century), carved wood, England. Detail. Stratford-on-Avon: Holy Trinity Church, south aisle, stalls. Ref. Website, flickr: groenling’s photostream (2014, col.) A monopodial grotesque with a human body on the supporter to the right of the seat holds a sword; another on the left holds a pipe with one hand above which which four holes are visible and below which are two, the lowermost offset. Where the window/labium of a recorder would be visible has been chipped away.
  • Triptych: Nativity (?15th century), painting on ?wood, ?Flemish.  Antwerp: Museum Mayer van den Bergh. Ref. Website, flickr: Groenling’s photostream (2014, col.)
    In the central panel Mary, Joseph, a sheep, and two diminutive angels worship the infant Jesus. In the right panel one of the three shepherds, leaning on his spear, gazes open-eyed. In the left panel two shepherds arrive: one kneels, supported by his crook in one hand and holding a small, flared bell duct flute (possibly a recorder) in the other: his companion peers shyly from behind him.
  • Chroniques sire Jehan Froissart (Froissart of Louis de Gruuthuse): Coronation, illumination: border decoration, Flemish (Bruges, 15th century). Loc. Bibliothèque national de France, MS Française 2643, f. 284v.) Ref. Website: gallica (online 2013, col.) A heavily illustrated deluxe illuminated manuscript in four volumes, containing a French text of Froissart’s Chronicles, written and illuminated in the first half of the 1470s in Bruges, Flanders, in modern Belgium. The text of Froissart’s Chronicles is preserved in more than 150 manuscript copies. This is one of the most lavishly illuminated examples, commissioned by Louis of Gruuthuse, a Flemish nobleman and bibliophile. Several leading Flemish illuminators worked on the miniatures. The four volumes are now in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris as BnF, MSS Français 2643-6, and contain 110 miniatures of various sizes painted by some of the best Brugeois artists of the day. However, the border decoration in these volumes was the work of anonymous specialists. Here, amongst the usual marginal decoration of leaves, flowers and imaginary animals, a man and a dog dance together as the man plays a duct-flute, possible a recorder as there are holes beneath his hand.
  • Chroniques sire Jehan Froissart (Froissart of Louis de Gruuthuse): Bal des Ardents (The Ball of the Burning Men), illumination: border decoration, Flemish (15th century). Loc. Bibliothèque national de France, MS Française 2646, f. 176r. Ref. Website: gallica (online 2012, col.)  The Ball of the Burning Men was a masquerade ball held on 28 January 1393 in Paris at which Charles VI of France performed in a dance with five members of the French nobility. Four of the dancers were killed in a fire caused by a torch brought in by a spectator, Charles’s brother Louis I, Duke of Orléans. The illustration of this horrific event seen here is by the Master of Anthony of Burgundy, a Flemish miniature painter active in Bruges between about 1460 and 1490, apparently running a large workshop, and producing some of the most sophisticated work of the final flowering of Flemish illumination. However, the border decoration in these volumes was the work of anonymous specialists. Amongst the usual marginal decoration of leaves, flowers and imaginary animals, an ape wearing a cape with a long tail terminating in a lion’s head plays a recorder, right hand uppermost. The window/labium and several fingerholes are clearly depicted, the lowermost hole is doubled and the bell is distinctly flared, so this represents a recorder

French

  • Musical Angel (1402–1407), carved stone corbel, French. Avioth (Lorraine): Basilique Notre-Dame, corbel supporting a statue of St Andrew. Ref. Website, flickr: groenling’s photostream (2016, col.); Anthony Rowland-Jones (2011, pers. comm.) The Gothic basilica was built between 1250 and 1400. 14 large painted statues of the 12 apostles with Christ and the Virgin Mary were presented to the church by Louis d’Orléans when he was governor of Luxembourg from 1402–1407. These statues were taken down in the early 19th century when the organ was built, partly because it was felt they were too gaudy; and the bright colours were over-painted in greys and browns. In 2008 they regained both their original colouring and their spectacular placement high up round the chancel triforium. Beneath the plinth on which each of the apostles stand are musical angels. Beneath the statue of St James is the bust of an angel playing a conical pipe with a wide foot. There is no sign of a beak or window/labium, but several finger holes are visible. This may represent a duct flute, but a shawm is a distinct possibility. Other statues in this series have angels playing fiddle, bagpipe, and citole. Avioth was an important pilgrimage centre between Malmédy and the Belgium border at Orval.
  • Book of Hours: Grotesque (1408), illumination, French. Oxford: Bodleian Library, MS Douce 144, f.28v. The pipe shown in this illustration does appear to be beaked, which suggests that it is a duct flute, and it has a recorder’s full complement of seven finger holes, counting the paired little-finger holes (and the curious first finger hole) as one. Above the latter, a little separated from the line of finger holes, is another mark which could possibly stand for a window/labium, but it is wrongly shaped. And there is no way of knowing whether or not there is a thumb hole underneath (Rowland-Jones, loc cit.)
  • Minstrels (14–15th century), stone capitals. Cérisy-la-forêt (Manche): Abbey (interior). Ref. Archiv Moeck; Christian Brassy (2000, pers. comm.); Bildarchiv Foto Marburg 160431; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006); Website: Abbaye de Cerisy-la-forêt (2012, col.) The church itself is 11th-century Romanesque. Otherwise somewhat austere, it includes carvings of minstrels playing shawm and duct flute very high up on a capital south of the sanctuary. Although rather fat, the latter is suggestive of a recorder, given the offset hole for the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand. Other carvings depict minstrels playing tabor pipes, bagpipes. Although the church has recently been cleaned the carvings seem not to have been tampered with and may therefore be taken as original.
  • Shepherd Musicians (? 15th century), fresco, French. Boussac (Creuse): Église paroissiale Ste-Anne , on the South wall of the main chapel. Ref. Matte & Matte (2005, col.) Two shepherds stand side by side. One plays a bagpipe; another has a cylindrical duct flute stuck in his belt. The characteristic beak and window/labium are clearly depicted.
  • Jesse Tree (1410), from Bible Historiale, Paris. Brussels: Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, MS 9002, f. 223. Ref. Hottoit (1982: cat. 14, pl. 41); Page (1997: 349, fig. 8, b&w); Rowland-Jones (1999c: 33; 2006c: 6–7 & fig. 5a, b&w). A Jesse Tree, in which the Virgin and Child are surrounded by the Kings of Judah playing musical instruments including nakers, bagpipe, marine trumpet, fiddle, harp, organetto, rebec, psaltery, lutes and a duct flute, probably a recorder. The latter is of tenor size, slightly outwardly conical in exterior outline, although the bore opening, which is visible, is quite small. The window/labium area is clearly shown, as are three finger holes low down on the body of the instrument, under a badly placed lower (left) hand. The first finger of the upper hand appears to cover its hole, which is placed unusually low down the instrument, with the three other fingers poised. The fact that it is of tenor size gives some credence to its identification as a recorder; Hottois (loc. cit) describes this instrument as a cornet. The Bible Historiale was the predominant medieval translation of the Bible into French. It translates from the Latin Vulgate significant portions from the Bible accompanied by selections from the Historia Scholastica by Peter Comestor (d. c. 1178), a literal-historical commentary that summarizes and interprets episodes from the historical books of the Bible and situates them chronologically with respect to events from pagan history and mythology. It was composed between 1291 and 1295 (1294 old system) by priest and canon Guyart des Moulins. The work was copied in many manuscripts, of which more than a hundred survive, most of them richly illuminated, some with more than 300 miniatures.
  • Jesse Tree (1411), from Thomas du Val’s Bible Historiale, in French. London: British Museum, Royal 19. D. iii f 458. Detail showing musicians. Detail showing what may be a recorder. Ref. Montagu (1976: 45, pl. VI); Rowland-Jones (2006c: 7 & fig. 5b, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1–2 (2-22, col.) The Virgin and Child are surrounded by kings playing musical instruments, amongst them an ambiguous pipe. The latter is outwardly conical and, although the hands are in a recorder-playing position, it is held upwards at an angle above horizontal. There is an incised decorative ring round the bell-end, a common decorative feature of early recorders, but no other details are apparent. The Bible Historiale was the predominant medieval translation of the Bible into French. It translates from the Latin Vulgate significant portions from the Bible accompanied by selections from the Historia Scholastica by Peter Comestor (d. c. 1178), a literal-historical commentary that summarizes and interprets episodes from the historical books of the Bible and situates them chronologically with respect to events from pagan history and mythology. It was composed between 1291 and 1295 (1294 old system) by priest and canon Guyart des Moulins. The work was copied in many manuscripts, of which more than a hundred survive, most of them richly illuminated, some with more than 300 miniatures.
  • Petites Heures de Jean de Berry (1375–1416): A Dominican Priest Blesses a Prince Watched by Christ Surrounded by Angel Musicians (1388), illumination, 9 × 7 cm, French. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, BNF, LAT 18014, fol. 8. Ref. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris: Le roi Charles V et son temps (1338–1380), 1000 enluminures du Département des Manuscrits (2002, col.); Rowland-Jones (2006c: 4). Twelve musical angels play pipe and tabor, bagpipe, organetto, nakers, lute, cymbals, vielle, psaltery, and two pipes. One, on the left hand side of the illumination, has a flared bell seems most likely to represent a shawm since it is amongst the loud instruments. The other, at the top right hand corner, is narrowly cylindrical and is more likely to be a duct flute, possibly a recorder since it is amongst the soft instruments. One musical angel is hidden behind a copy of the Bible held by Christ.
  • Angel Musicians (ca 1390–1420), sandstone carving, French. Thann (near Mulhouse): La Colliègiale St-Thiebaut, West Portal. Ref. Commission Regionale, d Alsace (1980: 163–164 & 306–307); Kirner (2000); Arnold den Teuling (pers. comm., 2001); Office de Tourisme du Pays de Thann (2001); Website: Cahiers de Tourdion (2001); Postcard, Beau’Lieu, Lyon, 68800 (a. 2002); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Angel musicians adorning the outer archway of the West Porch (Grand Portal) play, shawm (with a bulbous foot), harp, fiddle, psaltery, nakers, a broken instrument (possibly a trumpet), lute, syrinx, another fiddle, triangle, monochord, cymbals, another lute (at least one of the lutes is a long-neck lute), portative organ, another harp (the harps are nearly triangular), and a cylindrical recorder, the window/labium and several finger holes of which are very clear, including paired-holes for the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand. An angel on the top of the column with angels on the north-west corner was restored by Hils (1888–1892). Thus the reed and pirouette of the shawm has been replaced with the beak, window/labium and two finger holes of a duct flute, though the player has retained the inflated cheeks characteristic of shawm-playing. The recorder player appears never to have been subject to restoration. Kirner (loc. cit.) writes that the balance of opinion is in favour of the sculptor being from Swabia who may have worked on the West Portal at Ulm and perhaps also at the South Portal at Augsburg Cathedral. Although some have argued for earlier dates, the characteristic armour of soldiers depicted in a number of scenes and other evidence indicates that the work was started around 1390 and completed around 1420. There is no archival material in existence.
  • Bethlehem Triptych: Beggar with a Recorder (ca 1430), French. Moulins: Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Moulins, Treasury. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999. A fierce-looking beggar (or shepherd) in tatters seated on the ground holds in one hand a cylindrical duct flute with a slightly flared bell. The offset hole for the little finger of the lowermost hand is clearly depicted, though there seems to be an extra finger hole.
  • Nativity (1420/30), wood, 46 × 48 cm, French (Paris or Dijon). Antwerp: Collection Fernand Stuyck. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). “This picture is exactly the same (an incredibly accurate copy?) as the 15th-century Flemish Nativity in the Galerie Arents, Brussels” (Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm.) Mary prays and Joseph holds out his hand to the Christ Child as a cow looks on, eyes wide. Angels kneel on either side, and two angel musicians play lute and a cylindrical recorder.
  • Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary: May (ca 1450), from a Book-of-Hours, French. Baltimore: Walters Art Art Museum, MS W269, f.16. Ref. Bowles (1983). From a private devotional book apparently made for a married couple, possibly by Willem Vrelant & Associates. Along the bottom margin of one of the pages, two couples play musical instruments, while a third couple plays backgammon. On the left a couple play rebec and an ambiguous pipe (possibly a recorder as a shawm would be too loud for the context, and would not have been played in the courtly situation depicted). On the right a couple play harp and lute; above them, a man plays another ambiguous pipe.
  • From Christine de Pisan: L’Epître d’Othéa, (1450–1475): Mercury, Playing his Flute, Puts Argus to Sleep to Steal Io, Changed into a Cow, miniature on vellum, 4.5 x 90 cm, French (Burgundy). The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB 74 G 27, Fol. 31r: min. Ref. Koninklijke Bibliotheek: Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts (2002). Mercury (who is unusually hirsute and seems to have lost his bottom half) plays a cylindrical duct flute (possibly a recorder) one-handed, holding Io by her halter. Argus, with eyes all over his body, wearing a large red hat, seems asleep on his feet.
  • Book of Hours of the Ducs d’Orléans: Annunciation to the Shepherds (1460–1470), French. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale n. a.lat **, fol. 65v. Ref. Porcher (1961: No. 21, pl. 73); Rasmussen (2002–2004, Bagpipe). “One shepherd has a recorder (pausing). Another, riding on a donkey, plays a bagpipe” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • The Shepherds Dametas and Menalcas challenging each other to a Musical Contest, from The Eclogues by Virgil with a commentary by Servius (1469), illumination on vellum, French. Dijon: Bibliotheque Municipale, Ms 493 f.10v. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library, XIR187798 (2009, col.) In a forest littered with tree-stumps, a shepherd doffs his hat to another. Both hold clearly depicted recorders with flared bells. Each has a small tuning hole just above the foot. The focus on recorders in the illuminations of this manuscript is similar to those by the Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce in another 15th-century manuscript version of the Eclogues held in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.
  • The Shepherd Menalcas and his Unrequited Love, from  The Eclogues by Virgil with a commentary by Servius (1469), illumination on vellum, French. Dijon: Bibliotheque Municipale, Ms 493 f.15v. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library, XIR187865 (2014, col.) Two young women discuss a statuette which one of them has in her hand. They seem oblivious of the shepherd musician behind them who serenades them on a long conical duct flute, of which  the beak, window/labium and an off-set hole for the little finger of the lowermost (left) hand are clearly depicted. The bell is flared and there has two tuning holes like those of a shawm rather than a recorder. The focus on recorders in the illuminations of this manuscript is similar to those by the Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce in another 15th-century manuscript version of the Eclogues held in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.
  • Shepherds by a River, from The Eclogues by Virgil with a commentary by Servius (1469), illumination on vellum, French. Dijon: Bibliotheque Municipale, Ms 493 fol.14. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library, GIR 187864 (2009, col.) Beside a stream, two shepherds face each other, each holding a crook in one hand and a clearly depicted flared bell recorder in the other. Each recorder has paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand. The focus on recorders in the illuminations of this manuscript is similar to those by the Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce in another 15th-century manuscript version of the Eclogues held in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.
  • An Exchange of Gifts, from The Eclogues by Virgil with a commentary by Servius (1469), illumination on vellum, French. Dijon: Bibliotheque Municipale, Ms 493 f.17. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library, XIR187866 (2014, col.) Two shepherds exchange gifts on a road leading to a walled, towered city. One gives a lamb which he places on his companion’s shoulder; the other gives a recorder. The beak, window/labium, finger holes and flared bell of each recorder are clearly depicted. The focus on recorders in the illuminations of this manuscript is similar to those by the Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce in another 15th-century manuscript version of the Eclogues held in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.
  • Tityrus meets Meliboeus, from The Eclogues by Virgil with a commentary by Servius (1469), illumination on vellum, French. Dijon: Bibliotheque Municipale, Ms 498 f.3v. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library, XIR187795 (2014, col.) Sitting on a hillside in a clearing amongst a forest of beech trees the shepherd Tityrus plays a slender, conical duct flute with one hand as he is approached by Meliboeus holding his crook in one hand and guiding a lamb with the other. The lamb looks healthy enough despite Meliboeus’ complaints. The beak and window/labium of the duct flute are well depicted and there appears to be a small finger hole towards the foot of the instrument. This may be a tabor pipe, but a recorder remains a possibility. The focus on recorders in the illuminations of this manuscript is similar to those by the Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce in another 15th-century manuscript version of the Eclogues held in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.
  • The Celebration of the Child Who Will Restore the Golden Age on Earth, from The Eclogues by Virgil with a commentary by Servius (1469), illumination on vellum, French. Dijon: Bibliotheque Municipale, Ms 493 f.9. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library, XIR187795 (2014, col.) A well-to-do couple stand on a path which passes through a clearing between a hillside and a forest, a baby in swaddling clothes is positioned upright at their feet. Opposite them a musician plays a long conical duct flute,  of which the beak, window/labium and an off-set hole for the little finger of the lowermost (left) hand are clearly depicted. The bell is flared and has two tuning holes like those of a shawm rather than a recorder. The focus on recorders in the illuminations of this manuscript is similar to those by the Master of the Vraie cronicque descoce in another 15th-century manuscript version of the Eclogues held in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.
  • [Piper] (p. 1473), stone sculpture, French. Meillant: Château de Meillant, decorated facade. Ref. Website, flickr: Wilfried Preaet’s photostream (2016-col.) The transformation of the original castle into a gothic-style manor was begun in 1473. In this sculpture a crouching man plays a recorder with a conical profile, the beak and window/labium perfectly depicted and played all fingers down with one hole to spare above and two below!
  • Annunciation to the Shepherds (ca 1480), illumination, French. Avranches: Scriptorial d’Avranches. Ref. Website: Habetrot (January, 2015). Three shepherds, a shepherdess and their dog look heavenwards as an angel flies overhead with a banner. One of the shepherds holds a bagpipe, another holds a conical, slightly curved pipe which could be a recorder. In the background their sheep graze obliviously, and others are let into the pen by two more assistants.
  • Initial from the Graduale of King Matthias I of Hungary (ca 1480/90), probably North French. Budapest: Corvinus Egyetem, Ms Clmae 424, fol. 69′. Ref. Wiese (1988: fig. 31, b&w); Archiv. Moeck. The King and Queen watch a religious procession led by musicians playing pipe and tabor and lute.
  • Book of Hours for the use of Rome and Saurm/Rouen (ca 1485–1500): Annunciation to the Shepherds, Central France (possibly Le Mans). The Hague.  Ref. Website: The Border Collie Museum (2014, col.) On a rug, three shepherds  are surrounded by their sheep, their dog beside them, their sheep grazing behind them. One sits, playing his bagpipe; one squats, looking upward; the other stands, holding a soprano-sized pipe (quite possibly a recorder) in one hand and  pointing to an angel bearing a banner with the other. There is a farm behind them, and windmills on the distant hills.
  • Pour desmolir ma grand melencolie [To banish my great melancholy] (1489-1494), illumination, 318 x 218 cm, French 15th-century. From Le Séjour d’honneur [Stay of Honour], by Octavien de Saint-Gelais (1468–1502). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France. Département des Manuscrits. Français 12783. Ref. Website: gallica (2016, col.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1460 (2022, col.) In this miniature, the melancholic author, fully clothed, reclines on a canopied bed. He holds a lute under his right arm and a recorder up in the air with his left hand. Lady Reason approaches him with a mirror in one hand and a peacock-feather fan in the other: presumably the former symbolises self-reflection, the latter is a symbol of royalty. Octavien [Octovien] de Saint-Gelais (1468–1502) was a French churchman, poet, and translator. His Stay of Honor is the allegorical story of his youthful errors, such as sensuality, folly, vain hope, etc.; then his repentance with the help of Reason. This account of human life in the form of an allegorical dream, belonging to the tradition of initiatory pilgrimages, was presented to King Charles VIII (1470-1498).
  • Maison du Pilier aux Trois Flûtes (ca 1490), wooden carvings, French. Bourges: Rue Bourbonnoux. Ref. Editions Valoire-Blois: postcard B.P. 45-41260, La Chaussée-Saint-Victor (col.); Recorder Magazine 18 (1): cover, col. (1998); Rowland-Jones (1998c: 34). Three enormous cylindrical recorders form the corner pillar holding up a 15th-century house, now a patisserie. Seven finger holes are clearly shown with paired holes for the lowermost finger.
  • René II Copying the Psalms (ca 1490), from the Breviary of Duke René II of Lorraine. Detail. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, MS 601, f. 2V. Ref. Michel et al. (1958: 528 & pl. 33); Pincherlé (1959: 27, col.); Abbiati, in Fabbri (1964, 1: 355); Bowles (1983: 38, pl. 11); Early Music  19 ( 1991, 2); Musical Times Early Music Calendar (1993: March, col.); Alamire C5 (1996); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). Musicians surround René (recognizable by his coronet) as he works at a desk beside King David (with his harp) and opposite one of the psalmists. The musicians include players of straight, trumpet, tabor, vihuela de arco (shown with two bridges and an additional lancet sound hole), portative organ, porcine hammered dulcimer and a flared-bell tenor recorder. It is notable that the dulcimer, organetto and  recorder players are all well-dressed women, too well attired to be a servants, and the recorder player wears an elaborate headpiece of some kind. René II was Duke of Lorraine from 1473; he claimed the crown of the Kingdom of Naples and the County  of Provence as the Duke of Calabria from 1480–1493, and as King of Naples and Jerusalem from 1493–1508.  In this illumination he is wearing a coronet rather than a  crown. Since rulers of the time strongly identified with King David, David cycles grew increasingly popular in both Flemish and French manuscripts at the end of the fifteenth century and appear both in breviaries, which are organized around the Psalter, and in books of hours, which are not (Kren & McKendrick 2003: 374–75 & footnote 4).
  • The Household Musicians (ca 1490), from the Breviary of Duke René II of Lorraine. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, MS 601, f. 44r. Ref. Olimpio in Furlani (1956: 2665–2666); Bowles (1983: 38, pl. 10); Wiese (1988: fig. 33, b&w); Archiv Moeck; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000); Website: Getty Images (2016, col.) Musicians practice, to the distraction of the labourers in the garden outside. They play a sigmoid horn, two straight trumpets, vihuela de arco, harp, porcine hammered dulcimer and two recorders, one an alto or tenor (very clearly shown). The window/labium is very clear on both instruments. The nearer player’s instrument shows the three lower-most finger holes in line. The bell is slightly flared.
  • Grand Calendrier et compost des bergers (1491): Shepherd’s Calendar, woodcut, French. Ref. Salmen (1976, pl. 2); Early Music News 81: cover (1984). A shepherd with a bagpipe makes an announcement to his companions who are seated. On the ground are two small flared-bell duct flutes (probably recorders). The same woodcut was used in the Geneva editions of 1491 and 1500. Almost identical to a coloured woodcut at Angers (see below).
  • ? Nativity Shepherds (15th century), coloured woodcut, French. Ref. Pierre Boragno (pers. comm., 2008. A shepherd with a bagpipe makes an announcement to his companions who are seated. On the ground are two small flared-bell duct flutes (probably recorders). Almost identical to the non-coloured woodcut noted above.
  • Heures à l’usage de Paris: Annunciation to the Shepherds (1498), metal engraving, printed by Philippe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre, French (Paris). Ref. Berthail (1986: 61, fig. 49; 82); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006). Four shepherds with their sheep, goats and dogs outside the walls of a town look up at angels bearing a banner. One of the shepherds who is seated holds a clearly depicted recorder of soprano/alto size, slightly flared. This engraving may also appear in the Nantes Hours (see below).
  • Heures à l’usage de Nantes: May (late 15th century), metal engraving, printed by Philippe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre, French (Paris). Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Ref. Berthail (1986: 83, fig. 58); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006). Border of a calendar depicting three couples in a garden: one promenading, a second sitting talking whilst she makes a wreath, and a third sitting with her holding a blossom and him playing a flared-bell recorder, the beak and window of which are clearly illustrated. This engraving was used again by Philippe Pigouchet in Heures à l’usage de Machon, also printed for Simon Vostre (1502).
  • Heures à l’usage de Nantes: Annunciation to the Shepherds (late 15th century), metal engraving, printed by Phillipe Pigouchet for Simon Vostre (Paris). Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Ref. Berthail (1986: 66, item 56). With Joseph standing behind them, the Virgin and the Christ-child are visited by shepherds and shepherdesses. In the foreground two shepherds kneel. ‘Le beau Roger’, the shepherd on the right with a dog on a lead and his crook in his left hand, holds what must be a tenor recorder up to the Christ-child in his right.By the late 15th century, much of the demand for Books of Hours was being met by printers who used woodcuts, or in this case metal-cuts, instead of hand-drawn illustrations. Among the most successful producer of books of hours was the Parisian publisher Simon Vostre [m.1522?] who issued numerous editions from the 1490s until his death. In some the plates were coloured (see below).
  • Mercury and Argus (1499–1500), woodcut from Christine de Pisan’s Les Cent Histoires de Troye: L’Epître d’Othéa, Paris, French. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, Rés. Ye-286 . Ref. Rowland-Jones (2000c, fig. 3). Argus is lulled asleep by Mercury who plays his pipe one-handed, holding Io (as a heifer) by the halter in the other hand. ” The woodcut shows no details of the pipe, but it is referred to (three times) in the text as a ‘flag(e)ol’, which usually means a six-holed duct flute. Note the Christian moralising in the ‘Allegorie’. A humane Mercury, well disguised, seems to have no intention of beheading Argus, who is somnolent and fails to notice Io being led away (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) Actually, the text refers to Mercury’s pipe five times: twice as ‘flageol(s)’, and thrice as ‘flagol(s)’.
  • The Contest between Apollo and Pan (1499-1500), woodcut from Christine de Pisan’s Les Cent Histoires de Troye: L’Epître d’Othéa, published by Philippe Pigouchet, French (Paris). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, Rés. Ye-286. Ref. Website: gallica (2016: 26). Sitting on a rock, Apollo strums his harp whilst Pan stands playing his duct flute (probably a recorder) amongst a flock of sheep. Midas, who  indicates that Pan has won the contest, has already sprouted asses’ ears. The beak, window/labium and flared bell of the duct flute are clearly depicted and Mercury’s fingers are well-deployed for recorder playing. The text refers to Pan’s instrument as a ‘flaiol’.
  • Boccaccio, De claris mulieribus: Queen with Four Attendant Maidens Playing Musical Instruments (early 15th century), French. London: British Library, 2960, Shelfmark Royal 16 G. V; Page Folio Number f.3v. A queen, standing, is entertained by four maidens playing rebec, horn, and a very slender cylindrical pipe, possibly a duct flute. However, the piper’s hands are both near the foot of the instrument and the lowermost is occluded by the pegbox of the rebec, so a 3-holed pipe is a possibility here.
  • From Ovid’s Metamorphoses, in a French translation by Colard Mansion: Pan (15th century): Pan, woodcut, French. B.Br. Ref. Boragno (1998: 10, b&w). There is a version of this work in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Amsterdam(Royal 2º, 391 leaves) published in 1484. Pan stands in a farmyard, a shepherd’s crook in his left hand, playing a flared bell duct flute in held his right. The window and four finger holes are visible, but this probably represents a tabor pipe rather than a recorder.
  • Grotesque playing a Recorder (15th century), French. Oxford: Bodleian Library: MS Douce 144, Roll 137, No. 21, fol. 28v. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. com, 1999). A grotesque plays a fat cylindrical instrument of soprano or alto size. It has paired holes for the lowermost finger. All the other six finger holes are clear. The beak is held close to but not in the mouth. The window/labium is not visible (unless it is one odd mark!) Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Les Très Belles Heures de Notre-Dame: Annunciation to the Shepherds (15th century), illuminated miniature, Northern French. Paris: Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, ms. 1274, f. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Fine Art Facsimile Edition, Faksimile Verlag, Lucerne. One of the masterpieces of 15th century European book illumination. Lavishly decorated, this illuminated manuscript is a small part of a much larger manuscript. Since 1956 it has been kept in the National Library of France and is revered as a national treasure. In this miniature, two of the shepherds, surrounded by their sheep, seem to be arguing with each other as the Archangel reads his message from an enormously long scroll, as if he has forgotten his lines. A third shepherd looks the other way, playing on his slightly conical duct flute with one hand. The instrument seems to have rather too many finger holes to be a tabor pipe.
  • Recorder Player (15th century), carved misericord, French. Flavigny-sur-Ozerain: Église Saint-Genès, choir stalls. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999); Website (Blog): Medieval Burgundy (2012, col.) A glowering man in a cloak and with a foreshortened body plays a cylindrical duct flute, probably a recorder, though his fingers seem to be covering four holes with the upper (right) hand and three with the lower. The parish church is well known for its 15th-century carved choir stalls which show animals and figures reading or playing musical instruments.
  • From a Book of Hours: Nativity Scene (15th century), woodcut, French. Ref. Ruhland (1996: 13); Rowland-Jones (1999: 128, fig. 3); Lasocki (2000: 11). The shepherds bring gifts to the infant Jesus in his mother’s lap. One, kneeling, presents the infant with a gently flared duct flute (flageolet or recorder) which is bigger than the baby itself! A second shepherd approaches to present his bagpipes.
  • Angel Musician, stained-glass (15th century), French. Moulins: Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame. Ref. Christian Brassy; Rowland-Jones (2006c: 10); Website, flickr: groenling’s photostream (2016, col.) An angel musician plays a very clearly depicted recorder of alto/tenor size, right hand uppermost The beak, window/labium and prominently flared bell are clearly illustrated; there appear to be rather more holes than fingers.
  • Virgin and Child Enthroned: stained glass (15th century), French. Moulins: Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame. Ref. Website, flickr; groenling’s photostream (2014, col.); Website, flickr: Wilfried Praet’s photostream (2016, col.) A panel on the left depicts P. Petitde presented by St Pierre; another on the left depicts his wife, Barbe Cadier and St Barbe. Above flamboyant panels above depict musical angels:  two  with red wings playing waisted fiddle and a tenor-sized recorder. The latter is wide in profile and flared towards the foot. The window/labium is clearly depicted and the hands are perfectly deployed for recorder playing. Other angels play waisted fiddle, gittern, triangle (with jingle rings), harp, bagpipe, psaltery and folded trumpet.
  • Angel Musicians, Stained-glass (late 15th– early 16th century), Rouen school, French. Caudebec-en-Caux: Église Nôtre Dame, North aisle. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006). Tracery lights includes angel musicians playing various instruments, including an ambiguous pipe (duct flute or shawm). The Église Notre Dame was built from 1425–1539.
  • Angel Musicians (late 15th – early 16th century), stone carving (flamboyant style), French. Caudebec-en-Caux: Église Nôtre Dame, organ loft (stone support). Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006). From a cornice, an angel musician plays an ambiguous pipe (possibly a duct flute). The Église Notre Dame was built from 1425–1539.
  • Angel Musician (late 15th – early 16th century), stone carving (flamboyant style), French. Caudebec-en-Caux: Église Nôtre Dame, West Front, South Portal, tympanum. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006). The tympanum is decorated with angel musicians one of whom plays an end-blown pipe which might represent a duct flute (flageolet or recorder) but is probably a shawm, since it has a wide bell, no window/labium is shown and his neighbour plays a bagpipe. Other instruments include organetto, psaltery, dulcimer, fiddle, drum, lute, cymbals, shawm, trumpet. However, an angel at the top inner left of the carvings within the tall arch of the central portal does seem to be playing a recorder, though it is a rather curious one. The incision at the top of his cylindrical instrument seems to represent a window/labium; the finger holes are very carefully shown, but the bell-end is set-back where it appears to have broken off while the original sculpture was being made and to have been mended in such a way as to look right viewed straight on. The bell end clearly shows its paired holes for the lowermost little finger. The Église Notre Dame was built from 1425–1539. It is believed that these sculptures have not been restored.
  • Le Roman de la Rose by Guillaume de Lorris & Jean de Meun: The Dance of Mirth, (15th century), manuscript illumination. London: British Library, Ms Harley 4425, fol. 14v. Ref. Herbert (1925: pl. XLVII); Musica Calendar (1965: 18 April – 1 May, col.) Kren (1983: 52, 54 & pl. VIII, col.; as by the Master of the Prayer Books of ca 1500); Finscher (1994–2008, III/8: 93, as ca 1490 and as Garten des Frohsinns [Garden of Mirth]); Rasmussen (2000, Harp). “Five dancing couples are accompanied by players of harp, pipe (long) and tabor and recorder (?)” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) The Romance of the Rose was written in two stages by two authors. In the first stage of composition, circa 1230, Guillaume de Lorris wrote 4,058 verses describing a courtier’s attempts at wooing his beloved woman. The first part of the poem’s story is set in a walled garden, an example of a locus amoenus, a traditional literary topos in epic poetry and chivalric romance. Forty-five years later, circa 1275, in the second stage of composition, Jean de Meun or Jehan Clopinel wrote 17,724 additional lines, in which he expanded the roles of his predecessor’s allegorical personages, such as Reason and Friend, and added new ones, such as Nature and Genius. They, in encyclopedic breadth, discuss the philosophy of love.
  • Le Roman de la Rose by Guillaume de Lorris & Jean de Meun, fol. 141: [Musical Instrument Maker’s Shop], ?15th century, manuscript, illumination. ? Location. Detail. Ref. Gallica (2011, b&w); Larousse (?title, ?date : 95, fig. b&w.); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1438 (2022, b&w.) A woman stands in a room which houses what seems to be a musical instrument collection, judging by the collection of instruments hanging on the wall. There is a mandola, a lute, two shawms, a hurdy-gurdy, psaltery, rebec, harp, bagpipe, crotales, panpipe, tabor, straight trumpet and an ambiguous pipe. The latter is probably a duct-flute, but only four finger-holes can be seen. The owner is holding an organetto and appears to be jumping in the air: perhaps he is excited at the prospect of a sale — or the sight of a pretty lady, given the literary context!
  • Lovers in a Garden (late 15th century), carved ivory comb, 15.0 × 8.5 cm, (French). ? Location: Victoria & Albert Museum, Inv. A.567-1910. Ref. Warburg Institute, Library A657-1910; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Ivory comb with courting scenes. On each side, the rectangular spaces above the teeth are carved in low relief with figure subjects against a cross-hatched background. On one side are three pairs of lovers: on the left the man plays a recorder and the lady holds a rose branch; in the centre the lady is making a crown of roses; on the right the couple walk arm in arm, the man with a falcon on his hand. On the other side, to the left are two musicians playing a lute and a another recorder; in the centre is the bridal couple, and behind the bride is a man holding a crown, and two women. At either end of the space for the teeth is a broad panel carved on both sides with wavy stems bearing leaves and flowers. Both recorders are flared with a hint of the window/labium, and the paired holes for the lowermost finger clearly depicted. Shawms would be completely out of place in this context.
  • Chansons d’Amour – The Copenhagen Chansonnier: Ja que lui ne s’i attende: Decorated initial ‘J’ (15th century), France. Copenhagen: Kongelige Bibliotek, Manuscript Department, Thott 291 8º. Ref. Kongelige Bibliotek (2002, col.) A man wearing a beautiful blue tunic and a magnificiently feathered cap plays a long tenor-sized duct flute with a widely flared bell. The window/labium is clearly depicted and six finger holes are visible. The thumb seems to be in the right position for recorder-playing, but the disposition of the player’s fingers is haphazard.
  • Musical Angel (15th century), stained glass, French. Bourges: Cathédrale Saint-Étienne. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library (2009: Image XIR206436, col.); Rowland-Jones (2006c: 11 & fig. 10, col.) The fame of Bourges increased when its archbishop became Pope Alexander V in 1408, although he died a year later. His arms may be found in the unrestored tracery glass high up in the south ambulatory chapel now dedicated to St Solange. In the glass immediately to the right of the pope’s arms is a winged angel playing what is clearly a recorder. Details of the beak, window/labium and finger holes (including paired holes for the lowermost finger) are clearly visible. There is an additional hole just below the paired lowermost finger hole. His cheeks are unnecessarily inflated and, as at Evreux, the artist seems to have been uncertain about the actual number of finger holes in what was to him probably an unfamiliar new instrument. To err in the right direction he has therefore marked in some nine or ten holes, with confusion of fingering to match. There is a second recorder in this stained glass (see below).
  • Musical Angel (mid-15th century), stained glass, French. Bourges: Cathédrale Saint-Étienne. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library (2009: Image XIR155350, col.); Rowland-Jones (2006c: 11). See above. The glass is mid-15th century and unambiguously depicts a recorder; between and below the paired little-finger holes it unusually has a small tuning hole. It is roughly coeval with another alto recorder representation in the stained glass of the Cathedral of Moulins, not greatly distant.
  • Angel Musician (15th century), stained glass, French. Evreux: Église Saint-Taurin, top left tracery of large window on S side of chancel. Ref. Rowland-Jones (2006c: 8 & 23, footnote). There is a probable duct flute, with a beaked mouthpiece, played by an angel-musician. During the 14th century the counts of Evreux were related to the kings of France by marriage. From 1349 to 1425 they were also kings of Navarre, adjacent to the kingdom of Aragon, renowned for the culture of its courts.
  • Domestic altarpiece (15th century), wood & mother of pearl, 68 × 63.5 cm, French. Munich: Bayerische Nationalmuseum, Inv. R 673. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2002: Mbnm – 309/2). Richly carved with scenes from the life of Jesus. To the right of the lower of two Nativity scenes are two shepherds: one, kneeling against his stave, holds a bagpipe; his companion standing behind him holds a flared-bell recorder. The beak and the hint of a window/labium are visible, and four finger holes can be seen, the remainder covered by his clutching right hand with the exception of an offset hole for the lowermost little finger. To the right of the upper Nativity scene a panel depicting ? Mary and Elizabeth with putti standing on pilasters at each side, that on the left playing a lute, that on the right a pipe (possibly a duct flute).
  • Book of Hours: Adoration of the Shepherds (ca 1495–1500), French. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, H.5 (Plummer, 93), folio 55. Ref. Ford (1988: #569); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “One shepherd offers a recorder to the Christ-Child; a second holds a bagpipe” (Ford, loc. cit.). Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.) notes that this provides another example of the recorder offered as a gift (of his music and of himself) by a shepherd at the crib. Not seen.
  • Angel Musician (? 15th century), painted wood carving, French. Valleé-de-la-Tet: ? Church (donated in 1735). A putto adorning the canopy of a carved Virgin and Child plays a conical pipe with the fingers of both hands in perfect recorder-playing position.
  • Mercury and Argus, from an edition of Petrarch’s Trionfi (?15th century), French. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, MS 5066 f. 15r. Ref. Warburg Institute, London; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). Mercury holds his caduceus in one hand and plays a flared-bell duct flute (possibly a recorder) held in the other. Argus dozes in front of him and a cock struts about the place. Io (as a heifer) is held by the halter by Mercury. In her side a panel has opened to show Io herself inside! A verse above refers to ‘le flageolleur mercure’.
  • Angel Musicians (?15th century), stone bas relief, French. Saint-Quentin: Hôtel de Ville. Ref. Matte & Matte (2001, col.) Atop the arches of a decorative facade of the building angel musicians play bagpipes, vielle, harp, marine trumpet, and a flared-bell pipe which is probably a shawm but possibly a duct flute. The Hôtel de Ville was built in 1509 in a Gothic style and is adorned by 173 sculptures.
  • Pastoral Scene, late 15th century), tapestry, French (Burgundian). London: Art market (1936). Ref. Exhibition, Brooklyn Museum, European Art 1450–1500 (1936: pl. 157); Rasmussen (2002, Bagpipe). “Includes shepherds playing a bagpipe and holding a recorder” (Rasmussen, loc. cit). Not seen.
  • Holy Trinity (late 15th century), miniature on parchment, French. Munich: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Abteilung für Handschriften und seltene Druck, Inv. Fol. 77 v. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Mbs – H 525). The illustration occupies about two thirds of the page and is surrounded by rich flora motifs. The Holy Trinity, surrounded by priests, saints and angels, including angel choristers and musicians who play harp, duct flute (probably a recorder), and positive organ.
  • Angel Musician (15th century), aquarelle mural, French. Detail. Ariège: L’Eglise Notre Dame de Tramezayques d’Audressein, entrance porch, underside of curved archway. Ref. Website: Anges Musiciens (2010, col.); Website: La base Médiathèque du patrimoine (2010, col.) Angels play lute and a tenor-sized slender cylindrical pipe, left-hand uppermost. Although details of the beak and window/labium are not depicted there are more than enough finger holes for the pipe to be a recorder. On the opposite side of the archway angels play harp and rebec. The church dates from the 13th century and was enlarged in the 14th century. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Virgin and Child with Angel Musicians (15th century), illumination, French. Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). The Virgin stands with the Holy Child in a mandorla surrounded by angels praying and playing organetto, flared-bell duct flute (possibly a recorder), harp and lute.
  • Atropos (1466), illumination on vellum, French. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des manuscrits, Français 1654 f 171r. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, col.) From a manuscript containing  Le Doctrinal rural (1465) and Dance aux aveigles (1466) , both by Pierre Michault (op. mid-late 15th century).  In this miniature, a skeletal figure of Death wearing a battered suit of armour and holding a gigantic spear rides a goat through a crowded street. He is accompanied by a man blowing a curved horn. They are led by a woman holding a up a pennant on which the word ATROPOS is emblazoned. Beside the flag-bearer, a bearded man plays a duct flute (probably a recorder), the window/labium clearly depicted. Two finger holes are visible in between the player’s hands. The margins of the page are decorated with flowers; on the right another skeletal figure plays a lute, and below a centaur with his bow takes aim at a viola (the flower, not a musical instrument). Atropos was the oldest of the Three Fates, and was known as the “inflexible” or “inevitable.” It was Atropos who chose the mechanism of death and ended the life of mortals by cutting its thread with her “abhorred shears.” She worked along with her two sisters, Clotho, who spun the thread, and Lachesis, who measured the length. Pierre Michault was a priest and writer at the court of Burgundy.
  • Horae ad usum Rotomagensem [Book of Hours, Use of Rouen] (1460-1470), coloured illumination on parchment, French. Location: BnF MS Latin 1178, f. 21v. Ref. Website: Gallica (2018, col.) In the central panel, Mary reads from a book whilst the child at her feet attempts to distract. Beside Mary, two angel musicians play lute and a cylindrical pipe. The latter is probably a recorder as there seem to be plenty of finger holes above the player’s upper (right) hand and below the lower (left). A fourth angel with blue wings sits in the right hand corner. The marginal decoration includes the usual flowers and foliage and two roundels depicting worshiping Mary who appears surrounded by a mandorla; and ? Jesus raising Lazurus from the dead.
  • The Fox and the Lion (1501), coloured woodcut, French (Strassbourgh). From Appologi sive Mythologi cum quibusdam Carminum et Fabularum additionibus by Sebastiani Brant, edited and with verses, fables and commentary by Sebastian Brant (1458-1521),  published in Basel by Jacob Wolff of Pforzheim. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, Inv. 84-B7576. Ref. Website: Lute Iconography LI-1415 (2022, col.). The woodcuts illustrating the Aesop corpus are enlarged, reversed copies of the Ulm edition of 1476 published by Zainer. To these are added 145 NEW WOODCUTS FROM A STRASSBURG MASTER, most illustrating the second part and four in part one replacing earlier versions.  In front of a house, on a sloping embankment a lion is seen at various stages of taming a fox. Littered on the ground are a harp, a rebec and bow, a lute and a duct-flute with five finger holes, probably a flageolet but possibly a recorder. A head-and-shoulders portrait of ?Aesop surveys the scene.

German

  • Decorated box (15th century), German. Hamburg: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Inv. 1954.13. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Hmkg – 17). On the lid of the box are 6 panels. Top left is a falconer in the middle of an enclosed structure; to the right, a woman brings the falconing glove. Below left, a woman plays on a harp in the middle of a fountain; to the right, a man plays a recorder. Not seen.
  • Triptych, right wing: Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1426–1450), oil on panel, 51.5 × 19.5 cm, German (Lower Rhine School). Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, 533. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999: KNwr – 122). Mary, helped upwards to Jesus in Heaven by two angels, is surrounded by angel musicians singing and playing portative organ, and a cylindrical duct flute (flageolet or recorder) with a small window/labium beneath which is a circle which may represent a maker’s mark. Lower down, four or possibly five finger holes show above the players left hand which seems to touch a hole close to the cylindrical end of the instrument.
  • The Children of Venus (late-15th century, illumination, German. Zürich: Zentralbibliothek, MS C 101, fol. 12v (long-term loan from St. Gallen Stiftsbibliothek). Ref. Warburg Institute, London, Image 5641, b&w (accessed 2016). The top frame depicts Venus with her attributes. She holds a mirror in one hand, a branch in the other. Beside her are emblems representing the constellations Taurus and Libra. The lower frame depicts lovers bathing in a tent. They are serenaded by musicians singing and playing shawm, trumpet, lute and a flared-bell duct flute (probably a recorder). The flared bell and window/labium of which are clearly depicted and the three fingers of the player’s uppermost hand and four fingers of the lowermost hand are covering their holes.
  • The Children of Venus (late-15th century, illumination, German (Swabian). USA: Private Collection, formerly Ulm, Schermarsche Bibliothek, Med. 8 from whence it disappeared under dubious circumstances after WW2. Ref. Hauber (1916: 34–43, 104f); Warburg Institute, London, Image 48048 (accessed 2016). Four pairs of lovers: two in bath-tubs, two embracing and two making babies. They are serenaded by musicians singing and playing harp, lute and three playing cylindrical pipes which may represent recorders. One of the later is of tenor size, the others are shorter. The top frame depicts Venus with her attributes. She holds a mirror in one hand, a branch in the other. Beside her are emblems representing the constellations Taurus and Libra. The lower frame depicts lovers bathing in a tent. They are serenaded by musicians singing and playing shawm, trumpet, lute and a flared-bell duct flute (probably a recorder). The flared bell and window/labium of which are clearly depicted and the three fingers of the player’s uppermost hand and four fingers of the lowermost hand are covering their holes.
  • Enthroned Virgin and Child with Two Angels (ca 1460), German. Berlin: Gemäldegalerie. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “One angel plays a mandora (not well depicted). The other plays an alto/tenor size pipe, held a little upwards with both hands close together near the top of the instrument, left hand uppermost. The player’s face and lips are relaxed, and the instrument has a beaked mouthpiece, inverted (so the window/labium would not be visible). The body of the pipe is cylindrical, with four finger holes below the hands, and an elongated bell with considerable flare. A tuning hole is near the bell. This seems to be an amalgam of a shawm and a duct flute” (Anthony Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) Anthony’s “mandora” is more likely a gittern.
  • Recorder-playing Angels (ca 1470), stone carvings, German. Konstanz: Cathedral, choir stalls, N side. Ref. Archiv Moeck. Two angels face each other playing cylindrical recorders with beaded foot tenon.
  • Maria im Ährenkleid [Mary in the Corn Cloak] (1470–1480), oil on panel, 101 × 70 cm, German (Cologne School). Ulm: Museum der Brotkultur. Ref. Greeting Card: Deutsches Brotmuseum, Ulm (1955, col.); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). “Mary wears a cloak decorated with ears of corn signifying regeneration. Beside her, are three angels with a large sheet of music; one holds a cylindrical soprano recorder (? used as a pitch-pipe) in the right hand. The beaked mouthpiece is fixed on to the body of the instrument, but no window/labium is visible. Two marks below the players hand could be finger holes. The bell-end is hidden. The painting is too small to expect identifying details” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) In the photograph provided by Rowland-Jones the window/labium of the recorder can be discerned.
  • Tombstone of Conrad Paumann (1410–1473), bas-relief in light brown marble. Munich: Dom zu Unserer Lieben Frau (Frauenkirche), rear wall near entrance, behind and to the side of the the cenotaph of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, (reg. 1294–1347) by Hans Krumpper.  Ref. Peter (1958: 44); Rowland-Jones (1995b: 45, footnote 8; pers. comm., 2002); Lasocki (2003: 9, b&w; 2004: 19, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-1250 (2002, col.) Displayed for some years in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum but now back in its original location in the Frauenkirche where I saw it myself in 2014. Above the great blind multi-instrumentalist and composer himself playing a small organ hang a lute, a harp and a flared-bell recorder, the window/labium and holes for seven fingers clearly visible, the lowermost paired. On the ground beside him is a rebec. There is a sketch of this by Karl Ballenberger (1801 -1860) in the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, Frankfurt (Inv. 55521).
  • Musical Clerics in a Library (ca 1475), from Valerius Maximus’ Histoires, MS Harley 4375, f. 151v. London: British Library. Ref. Bowles (1983: 143, pl. 111); McGee (1986: 487, fig. 3, b&w); The Museums & Galleries Collection, KGB901 (detail); Website: Alamire C6 (1996); Thomson & (1995: 35, fig. 11A). Three clerics seated on a bench, their music books behind them, play an ambiguous pipe, which may be a slender, flared-bell duct flute (flageolet or recorder), a small lute and a harp.
  • The Children of Venus (1470–1480), ink drawing, German. Vienna: Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Codex Vind. 3085, fo. 24 1°. Ref. Trottein (1993: 157, b&w). In the top panel Venus, naked, holds a circular mirror and a bunch of flowers in the other. In circular insets in each of the lower corners contain a goat (Aires) and a pair of scales (Libra). In a lower panel frizzy-haired musicians sing, play organ, lute, harp, trumpet and a flared-bell pipe (a shawm or possibly a recorder), whilst two couples dance.
  • Martinus Antonius altar: Assumption of Mary (1477), carved wood, German. Detail. Xanten: St.-Viktor-Dom. Ref. Website, flickr: Anges Musiciens (2010, col.) One of some 24 15th-century wood-carved altars made in the Rhine to be found in this church. Mary in her mandorla is supported by two pages. Saints on either side hold banners. God above dispenses his blessing standing between two guardian angels who both hold nasty-looking clubs. Flanking them, angel musicians play a small lute and a recorder. The window/labium and flared bell of the recorder are clearly depicted and all fingers of the lowermost (left) hand are covering their holes. Heaven doesn’t seem such a jolly prospect, here! On the other hand, the pages down below don’t look so friendly, either!
  • Coat of Arms of Reinhard von Neipperg (1486–1488), stained-glass book, German. Stuttgart: Landesmuseum Württenberg, Inv. KK grün 129 / KK 127-30. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2003: Slm – 163). From the Schloßkapelle, Neckarsulm. In the centre of the coat of arms a fool plays a recorder one-handed. The recorder is of alto/tenor size and has cylindrical body and a flared bell. Six finger holes can be seen, the lowermost offset and one hidden beneath the players hand. The window/labium is clearly depicted; the bell opening is wide and the walls thin. A banner surrounding the player reads “die dun[s]t all mir gelich und sind doch vermofftig[!] stargck und rich”.
  • Serenade (1489), woodcut, German. Berlin: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin , Sammlung Scharf-Gerstenberg. Ref. Alamy, Image JKX0MM (2017, b&w); Website: Lute Iconography LI-134 (2021, b&w). This woodcut is widely available on the internet, but its source is nowhere fully given. Alamy note that their source was a publication dated 1882. The text above the image contains a quote from Virgil followed by some lines of verse.
  • Angel Musician (c.1490), stained glass, German. Munich: Dom zu Unserer Lieben Frau (Frauenkirche), window nIV, 1. Ref. Warburg Institute, Image 49411 (accessed 2016). An angel with red and green wings plays a conical pipe. No details of the latter are discernible, but all the player’s fingers are in play and a recorder may have been intended.
  • From the Nitzschewitsch Marienpsalter: Annunciation to the Virgin (ca 1493), woodcut, German. Zinna: Bibliothek. Ref. Woldering (1961: 130); Rasmussen (1999, Horn; 1999, Lute). “Angels in the border/margin play curved horn, portative organ, lute, woodwind (shawm? recorder? – contextually probably recorder)” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • [Student Musicians] (1497), from Statutes of the Collegium Sapientiae in Freibug im Breisgau, manuscript drawing, Germany. Freiburg: University Archives, Coll. Sap. 2a, fol. 34v and 35r. Ref. Bowles (1977: 149, pl. 144); Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 10, fig. 5, b&w); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). Two musicians face each other across the bottom of the page; one plays a lute, the other an ambiguous pipe in the tenor range, possibly a recorder).
  • [Angel Musician] (late 15th century), woodcarving, German. Ettal: Kloster Ettal, Buch-Kunstverlag. Ref. Recorder & Music Magazine 1 (3): front cover, b&w (1963). Depicts an angel playing a wide, cylindrical recorder.
  • Angel Playing a Recorder (15th century), stained-glass panel, 22.6 × 8.3 cm, German (Rhineland). Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 48.1284. Depicts an angel playing a well-depicted yellow cylindrical recorder. The top three finger holes are open, and the lower (left) hand covers all four holes. The angel’s wings, hair, collar and flute are in yellow.
  • St Michael Altarpiece, upper panel of right wing: Jesus the Son of God (15th century) carved ? wood, painted, German. Detail. Schwäbisch Hall: Michaelskirche, side chapel. Ref. Website, flickr: Schwäbisch Hall, Baden-Württemberg (2013, col.) Attended by Mary, Christ is received by God the Father. They are surrounded by angels, two of whom play lute, one an organetto and another a tenor-sized cylindrical duct flute (probably a recorder), the window/labium clearly depicted. Below, clergy and ? patrons gaze heavenwards, praying. The lower panel of the right wing depicts Hell. The predela depicts the Last Supper. The central panel depicts St Michael trampling Satan.
  • Coronation of the Virgin (late 15th century), stained glass, Anonymous. Cologne: Dom. Ref. Rode (1974); Munich RIdIM (1999). An angel with a duct flute (possibly a recorder).
  • Triptych: Apocalyptic Madonna and Musical Angels: Angel with a Recorder (1475–1500), free-standing sculptures, North German. Skuttunge, Uppland (Sweden): Kyrka, chancel. Ref. Magnus & Kjellströn (1993: 245, fig. 165); RIdIM Stockholm (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). Around the central standing Madonna, eight angels play nyckelharpa (keyed fiddle), bagpipe, lute and a large cylindrical pipe (probably a recorder) with a Virdung-like bell (with a prominent ring at the bottom followed by a short sharp flare). All the recorder player’s fingers are on, right hand lowermost. The mouthpiece is beaked but no other details can be discerned.
  • Virgin and Child (late 15th century), carved wooden house altar, German (Niederrhein). Frankfurt am Main: Museum für Angewandte Kunst. Ref. Jedding (1956: Cat. no. 27: pl. 13); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). “Angels play fiddle, harp, lute and recorder. Very similar to the [early 16th century] Virgin and Child (private collection) below” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • Virgin and Child (late 15th century), carved wooden house altar, German (Niederrhein). Location unknown (formerly Seligmann Collection, Cologne). Ref. Lüthgen (1917: pl. LV); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). “Angels play fiddle, harp, lute and recorder. Very similar to the Virgin and Child in Museum für Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt above” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • From the Nuremberg Bible [Biblia Sacra Germanica] (1483): 2 Samuel 6, 1–5: David Brings the Ark to Jerusalem, coloured woodcut, Private Collection. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library (2007, Image STC67513). The Ark of the Covenant is carried in procession in a horse-drawn cart led by King David playing his lyre and other musicians, including a man playing a duct flute (probably a recorder). A dove flies above.
  • Triptych: Coronation of the Virgin (late 15th century), carved altarpiece, German. Detail. Osterwieck: Sankt Stephani Kirche. An elaborate folding altarpiece which opens to depict the Virgin surrounded by saints, angels and angel musicians singing and playing tabor, lutes, vielles, organetti, and a cylindrical pipe (possibly a duct flute). The bottom of the instrument has fallen off, the top of the instrument is constricted, so it could represent a reed instrument or a duct flute. Or perhaps this angel is hungry and munching a bratwurst!
  • Musical Angels, ceiling fresco, Kalkar: St-Nicolaikirche, vault above the choir. Ref. Website, flickr:  Anges musiciens (2014, col.) Musical angels play psaltery and a tenor-sized pipe with an ornamental ring before the rather elongate foot. There is no hint of a window/labium so this could represent a shawm, but a recorder seems more likely in this context.

Greek

  • Nativity (ca 1430), mural, Anonymous, Greek. Detail. Mystras: Pantanassa Monastery. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000; 2006c: 13). All murals in Mystras were restored in the 1950s and again in the 1980s. A shepherd plays a cylindrical pipe, probably a duct flute since there appears to be a window/labium. The disposition of finger holes and fingers is not clear. There is a striking resemblance between this shepherd, a 14th-century one from the Peribleptos Monastery, Mystras, and a late 16th-century one from Mt Athos (see below).

Italian

  • Musicians and Lovers (ca 1400), carved ivory comb, 16.2 × 11.4 cm, North Italian. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, Inv. 227-1867. This comb is carved in both sides and showing hand of figures embracing and playing on musical instruments. On one side musicians play tambourine, duct flute and rebec whilst lovers disport themselves; similarly, on the other side musicians play psaltery, organetto and lute. The beak of the duct flute is clearly depicted and there is the hint of a window/labium. The external profile of the instrument tapers gradually before expanding abruptly into a distinct foot. Although only one of the player’s hands are visible this could easily represent a recorder. There appear to a ring demarcating the head region from the body and a further two, fainter rings on the upper part of body itself and just before the foot. These could be purely ornamental, but it is tempting to think that the upper ring represents an expanded head like those we see on the surviving 14th-century German Gotingen and Esslingen recorders.
  • Diptych: Dormition and Coronation of the Virgin (ca 1400), carved ivory, Italian (?Venetian). Detail. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, A.566-1910. In the right-hand panel the Virgin is crowned to an accompaniment provided by angel musicians playing two organetti, shawms (with flared bells) and a slender cylindrical pipe (possibly a recorder). Venice was one of the centres of ivory carving in Italy, much of it based on French models.
  • Coronation of the Virgin (ca 1400), carved ivory, 10.6 x 7.8 × 0.5 cm, Italy (?Venetian). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ref. Website: Lute Iconography LI-1780 (2022, col.) Right leaf of a dyptych.  The Virgin is crowned by Christ surrounded by musical angels playing straight trumpet, bladder pipe, flute shawm, harp, vielles, lutes, organetti, gittern, and two small pipes, one slightly curved. A related ivory diptych in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, illustrates the Coronation and the Dormition of the Virgin (see above).
  • Squarcialupi Codex: marginal illustrations, (ca 1415–1420). Florence: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, MS Med. Pal. 87, fol. 121v. Ref.Hughes & Gerald (1987); Zaniol (1984, 1: 4); Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 4, pl. 2A; 2006: 9–10 & fig. 8a). A page containing Landini’s Musica son includes a portrait of the composer playing his organetto, and border decoration which include foliage, angels and a number of musical instruments including oud, a guitar (with a  sickle-shaped peg-box), long-necked lute, harp, psaltery, a second organetto (played by Lady Music), a trophy of what may be three flutes, flageolets or recorders and another trio of what are clearly shawms.
  • Squarcialupi Codex, marginal illustrations, (ca 1415–1420). Florence: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, MS Med. Pal. 87, f. 195v. Ref. Hughes & Gerald (1987); Zaniol (1984, November:4); Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 4, pl. 2A; 2006: 9–10 & fig. 8b). On a page containing music by the organist/composer Magister Johannes of Florence are border decorations which include dancers with two shawm-players, and a number of musical instruments including waisted fiddle, guitar (with the bent-back peg-box of a lute), and a trophy of three duct flutes (flageolets) each with six holes.
  • Monument to the Blessed Peacemaker of the Frari (1437), terracotta. Venice: Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Sepulchre of the Founding Friars. Around the arch above the sepulchre angel musicians play tromba marina, flute, fiddle, pipe (? shawm, recorder), timbrel, double flute, drum, and there are five singers. The pipe is wide with a gradual flare to the bell, the window labium is unclear, no finger holes are visible, but the fingers of both hands are on the instrument. There is a 15th-century portrayal of the Baptism of Christ in the lunette. Notes by Anthony Rowland Jones (pers. comm.)
  • Lucius Coelius Firmianus Lactantius, Opera (1460), marginal illumination, Italian (Rome). Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum, MS McClean 115, fol. 4v. Ref. Binski & Panayotova (2005: 339–340, item 162, col.); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006). Extensive border decorations with medallions (Gideon with the Fleece, Samson with the Lion, and Judith with Holofernes) and Italian white-vine border scrolling, inhabited by 18 playful putti and several animals. One putto plays a small lute and another a small pipe, possibly a recorder. The latter is cylindrical but with a slightly flared bell revealing a wide bore-opening. There are paired holes for the little finger of the lowermost hand, but the putto plays with only one hand, his left. And there is a mark that might just possibly represent a window/labium. The instrument is played close to vertically downwards, mouthpiece lightly on the putto’s lips. The scribe who copied this manuscript was Johannes Gobellini de Lins, librarius in the household of Niccolò Fortegueri of Pistoia (1419–1473), Bishop of Teano and treasurer of Pope Pius II, to whom Johannes then became papal scribe between 1461 and 1464. The illumination may have come from North of the Alps, since Johannes came from the area around Bonn and may have recommended a compatriot for the project.
  • Intarsia (1479–1482), intarsia, Italian. Urbino: Palazzo Ducale, Studiolo of Duke Federico da Montefeltro, N. side. Ref. Rotundi (1969: fig. 209; 1950: fig. 346); Guidobaldi (1994: 120, fig. 5); Rasmussen (1999, Tambourine); Frings (1999: 174, pl. 15, b&w): Website: Lute Iconography LI_470 (2-22, col.) Perhaps after designs by Bramante (b. 1444). A panel depicts a bench on which lie a number of musical instruments, a pomegranate and a round box of what look like small nuts. The instruments include a lute and three cylindrical recorders (two sopranos, one alto) one of which has a distinctly flared bore at the foot. The curved windways and offset bottom finger holes are clearly depicted on two of these instruments (soprano and alto). Like the neck of the lute, the recorders have decorative inlays. , reminiscent of the basset recorder SAM 624 in the Kunsthistorischen Museum in Vienna (Darmstadter & Brown 2006: 258–261). There is another version of this studiolo at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, originally from the Palazzo Ducale in Gubbio, designed by Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439–1502), executed by Giuliano da Majano (1432–1490).
  • Marriage of Regnault d’Oureille (ca 1475–1490), tapestry, French. Richmond: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Ref. Catalogue, European Art (1966: 120, pl.); Rasmussen (2002, Bagpipe). “A rural scene, including a bagpiper (with a recorder in his belt)” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen. This tapestry is not listed in the online catalogue of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (as at 19 August 2016).
  • Compost et kalendrier des bergiers: Annunciation, published by Guy Marchant, Paris (1493): Cy parle le bergier et fait ung prologue …, woodcut. Ref. Dal and P. Skårup (1980: 13); Bowles, (1977: 57); Rasmussen (2002, Bagpipe). “A shepherd holds a bagpipe. There are two recorders on the ground” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) The same woodcut appears in the Grand calendrier et compost des bergers, Paris (1523), Troyes (1529) and other editions.
  • Compost et kalendrier des bergierspublished by Guy Marchant, Paris (1493): April. Paris: Bibliotheque Nationale, GW 5908. Ref. Warburg Institute, London, Image 56420, b&w (accessed 2016). The left frame depicts Venus with her attributes. She holds a mirror in one hand, a branch in the other. Beside her are emblems representing the constellations Taurus and a Libra. The right frame depicts The Children of Venus, namely two lovers bathing in a tent. They are serenaded by a musician playing a pipe with a flared bell: he has a second pipe in his belt which, seen in side profile, has the characteristic beak of a duct flute and is probably a recorder. In the background, a ? singer and lutenist sit quietly together. The images in this manuscript are labelled ‘1493’, and the surrounding text shows that they cannot come from GW 5909, the other edition published in this year.
  • Apollo, the Muses and the Planets (1496), engraving from Franchinus Gaffurius’ Practicaa musicae, [The Performance of Music], published by Guillermus Le Signerre, for Johannes Petrus de Lomatio, Milan (1496). Dresden: Königliche Bibliothek; Bryn Mawr, Philadelphia: Bryn Mawr College Library. Ref. Waesberghe (1969: 152, fig.); Wyss (1996: 38, fig. 14). Apollo holds a a guitar (with the bent-back peg-box of a lute) in one hand and gestures towards the three Graces (Euphrosine, Thalia and Aglaia) on his right. Above him a man plays lute in the left and another plays a fiddle in the right-hand corner. Beneath him the Muses on the left and the Planets on the right are separated by a three-headed Serpent whose heads encompasses the Earth which is surrounded by Air and Fire. Each Muse is linked to a Planet via a musical mode. Euterpe (Muse of music and lyric poetry) plays a cylindrical duct flute, possibly a recorder, and is linked via the Lydian mode to Jupiter. Urania (Muse of astronomy) is paired with the sphere of the fixed stars. The same engraving appears in De Harmonia Musicorum (1518) – see below. Franchinus Gaffurius [Gafarius, Gafori, Gaffurio] was an Italian priest, composer and musical theorist who became maestro di cappella at the cathedral in Milan; his three most important treatises were Theorica musicae (1492), Practica musicae (1496), and De harmonia musicorum instrumentorum opus (1518); born Lodi (1451), died Milan (1522).
  • Page decoration, coloured engraving from Franchinus Gafurius’ Practica musicae [The Performance of Music], published by Guillermus Le Signerre, for Johannes Petrus de Lomatio, Milan (1496): Choir and Musical Putti, marginal decoration, vellum. Dresden: Königliche Bibliothek; Bryn Mawr (Philadelphia): Bryn Mawr College Library. Ref. Exhibition, Library of Congress, Washington: Dresden, Treasures of Saxon State Library (2002); Bryn Mawr College Library Special Collections, Exhibition: Books, Printers, and the Information Revolution in Early Modern Europe 1450–1600 (2001). At the bottom of the page two choirs of children sing. The children on the left read from a raised lectern. Those on the right read from individual books. On the right-hand margin an angel holds a shawm in one hand and a gittern in the other; beneath him, three putti play harp, lute and rebec; beneath them, two putti play flared-bell pipes which may represent recorders; beneath them, three putti play tambourine, nakers and tabor. Second and fourth editions were published in Brescia in 1497 and 1508, respectively. Franchinus Gaffurius [Gafarius, Gafori, Gaffurio] was an Italian priest, composer and musical theorist who became maestro di cappella at the cathedral in Milan; his three most important treatises were Theorica musicae (1492), Practica musicae (1496), and De harmonia musicorum instrumentorum opus (1518); born Lodi (1451), died Milan (1522).
  • Sacrifice to Priapus, from Francesco Colonna, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili published by Aldus Manutius, Venice (1499), woodcut, Italian. Ref. Winternitz (1979: 51, footnote 5); Art Bulletin 73 (1991: 242); Blunt (1995: 143, fig. 134); Rasmussen (1999, Tambourine); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers comm., 2002). “Two ladies blow end-blown woodwinds (presumably recorders) of unequal sizes, and another holds a tambourine (vaguely depicted). A youth blows a straight trumpet” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) “Three ladies accompany the cultic scene with wind instruments, two recorders and one piffero” (Winternitz loc. cit.) “A lot of people, mainly women, attend the sacrifice with instruments such as trumpet and tambourine. One of the ‘recorders’ is a cylindrical soprano-sized pipe with no identifying details (one wouldn’t expect them in so small a depiction and in this medium). All fingers of both hands are down, and the wrist position suggests the recorder. This woman stands at the lower right of the crowd. At the bottom left a seated woman plays a much longer pipe (at least tenor size), holding it almost vertically. Again, both hands and fingers are in playing position, left hand uppermost and the right hand stretched out to reach the lower finger holes. She plays slightly from the right of the mouth but with relaxed lips and cheeks. Winternitz’s ‘piffaro’ is very clearly a transverse flute” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Coronation of the Virgin (early 15th century), Italian. Milan: Commi-Bassi Collection. Ref. Brown (1988: #658, b&w). Centre panel of a triptych, typically Sienese in style. Four angels fly at the top of a central gable, “playing portative organ, recorder, lute and fiddle” (Brown, loc. cit.) The detail in this, the only reproduction, is too small to pick out even with a magnifying glass.
  • Assumption of the Virgin (ca 1400), Italian (Sienese). Berlin: Gemäldegalerie, Cat. 1089. Ref. Rowland-Jones (2006a: 32–3, fig. 5, b&w). The Virgin ascends into heaven on a cloud surrounded by angel musicians singing and playing pipe and tabor, nakers, lute, double pipe, fiddle, organetto, shawm and a conical pipe. Of the latter, no window/labium is shown, but it is almost certainly a duct flute by comparison with the other angel’s double pipe. The left hand does not quite reach to three holes, with two more (clearer) holes both above and below these three. Below these seven, the right-hand thumb and three right-hand fingers are visible, below which are a further two holes, making ten in all. Had the painter seen and been puzzled by the ?new multi-holed recorder (cf. Tarragona and Bourges examples)? The detailing of the instruments is more precise than in the Munich and Siena panels.There are striking similarities between this painting, another anonymous Sienese Assumption at Munich (ca 1340) and the Master of the Ovile Madonna’s Assumption at Siena (ca 1365). Sixty years seems a long life for such a restrictive formula, especially in the lively artistic climate of 14th-century Siena. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • The Virgin with Angels (15th century), 200 × 250 cm, Italian (Emilia). Avignon: Musée du Petit Palais, Inv. RF2066. Ref. Laclotte & Mognetti (1977: pl. 245); Amanda Spooner (pers. comm., 2002). The Virgin is surrounded by a heavenly host playing musical instruments including trumpets, rebec, lutes, tambourine, harp and a number of pipes. On her left two angels play long pipes with fontanelles and flared bells with thick walls, with just the hint of a window/labium and thus possibly tenor recorders rather than shawms. On her right (near her shoulder), two angels play what are clearly cylindrical duct flutes (probably recorders), the window/labium of each clearly visible. At her feet stand two angels playing fiddle and organetto.
  • [Untitled] (15th century), intarsia, Italian. Rome: Palazzo Vaticana, doors in the Stanza della Segnatum. Ref. Winternitz (1979: 119, pl. 49b, b&w); Wiese (1988: fig. 66, b&w); Archiv Moeck. Shows three duct flutes and a harp on one panel. Identified by Winternitz as ‘recorders’, but there are only three finger holes on the smallest, and only four on the larger instrument!
  • Virgin and Child (15th century), illumination, Italian. London: British Museum, Ms. 27,698, f. 105v. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). The Virgin and Child enthroned are entertained by a host of angel musicians playing triangle, pipe and tabor, organetto, harp, lute, tromba marina, psaltery, nakers, and three flared-bell recorders (on all three the windway/labium is visible).
  • Annunciation (15th century), Italian (Umbrian-Tuscan style). Sansepolcro: Chiesa di Santa Chiara. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). Mary enthroned is surrounded by musical angels singing and playing cymbals, fiddle, lute, straight trumpets and a long cylindrical pipe, possibly a recorder.
  • Angels Making Music, tempera on panel (15th century), Italian (Tuscan). Location unknown: Auctioned by Sotheby’s, 11 December 1996 (sold). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.); Website: Bowed Strings Iconography Project, bsip279 (2022, col.) Angel musicians sing and play organetto, psalteries, fiddle, shawms, gittern, and two slender cylindrical duct flutes. The latter are featureless apart from a more or less clear representation of the window/labium of each. In each case the foot is hidden behind the halo of the angel in front, but the hand and finger positions are suggestive of recorder playing with all four fingers of the lowermost hand seemingly covering their holes.
  • St John the Baptist and Landscape (? late 15th century), Italian. Venice: Scuola Grande di San Rocco. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). In the background, centre left, a shepherd sits with his sheep, playing a slender alto-sized pipe with some bell flare, the right hand lowermost.
  • [Musicians], from a volume of Suetonius Tranquillus (late 15th-century), engraving, Italian. Ref. Confalonieri, in Fabbri (1964, 1: 160); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). Five musicians (one a king wearing a crown) seated on rather elaborate stools sing play lute, an oval-shaped guitar (with a sickle-shaped peg-box), and a pipe, very probably a recorder since all fingers of the lower (right) hand are covering their finger holes.
  • Figure with a Flute (15th century), painting, Italian (Ferrarese). Budapest: Szépmüvészeti Múzeum. Ref. Halápy (1973: 246); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2007). One of a pendant pair with Figure with Harp. The flautist, a woman, is almost certainly playing cylindrical, alto recorder: the general position is perfect, left hand lowermost.
  • Ivory casket (15th century), 5.5 × 15.0 cm, North Italian. Düsseldorf: Kunstmuseum, Inv. B 129. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, DÜk – 123). The upper side of the lid depict a fenced tree and peacock, on each side are two women and two men. One of the men plays a recorder or shawm. Not seen.

Netherlandish

  • Book of Hours: Annunciation to the Shepherds (c. 1410–1420), Netherlandish.
    London: British Library, Add_MS_50005, f. 3v. On a grassy hillside, an elderly shepherd looks up as the angel above unfurls his banner. Opposite him, sit two young sheperds: one follows his father’s gaze, the other pipes on a clearly depicted duct-flute, the window-labium and finger-holes more-or-less clearly visible. The lowest hole seems to be slightly offset and is adjacent to the little finger of the player’s lowermost (right) hand, so this might represent a recorder. The grazing sheep around them seem disinterested.
  • Polyptych, front: Life of the Virgin, wings left, Register 1: Musician Angel Playing the Recorder (1450–1460), ivory, bone & wooden statue, 48.3 cm high (with base), Netherlandish. Detroit: Institute of Arts, Inv. 23.149. Ref. Website: Courtauld Institute of Art (2012, col.) Around a central statuette of the Virgin and Child standing beneath a canopy, eight panels depict scenes from the life of the Virgin, beside each of which a more slender panel depicts a musician angel. The angel at the top left plays a cylindrical duct flute (possibly a recorder), the beak clearly visible; the accompanying panel depicts the Meeting at the Golden Gate (Meeting of Joachim and Anna). Other musician angels in this polyptych play fiddles, harp, psaltery, lute and organetto. On the reverse is a geometric intarsia of bone and wood.
  • Virgin with Musical Angels (c.1490), Netherlandish. Berlin: Bode Museum, Inv. 2109. Detail. Ref. Website, flickr: Anges Musicaux (2013, col.) The Virgin reads from a book, the infant Jesus on her lap. They are surrounded by musical angels playing lute, harp, fiddle and double pipe. Although played together, each one-handed, the latter both have seven finger holes and thus might represent recorders. They are very slender with markedly flared bells: their beaks are of a darker material than the body.
  • Book of Hours, use of Rome (The ‘Huth Hours’): Musical Shepherd (c. 1485–1490), illumination on parchment, 15.0 × 10.5 cm, Netherlandish (Bruges or Ghent). London: British Museum, Add MS 38126, f. 5r. Ref. Website: British Library, Digitised Manuscripts Add MS 38126 Detail of a calendar page for April, with a roundel miniature of a shepherd playing on a stout cylindrical duct flute (probably a recorder) for his flock and his dog, with the zodiac sign of Taurus above. The beak, window/labium are clearly depicted; the first three fingers of the player’s uppermost (left) hand appear to be covering their holes, a further three holes are visible beneath them, and a hole for the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand may be offset and thus out of sight. There is the hint of a small hole immediately before the foot of the instrument. The dog is sitting up on its hind legs and begging for more music! The Huth Book of Hours, dated between 1485 and 1490, is one of the finest examples of the Flemish illumination of the late fifteenth century, and contains the most ambitious devotional programme by Simon Marmion and his assistants, the Master of the Houghton Miniatures, the Master of the Dresden Prayer Book, and possibly the Ghent Associates.
  • Job at the Dung Heap (late 15th century), Netherlandish. Italy: Private Collection (1949). Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). One of two friends holds a soprano/alto recorder with the beak inverted but close to his lips. There may be a window/labium, but this is not clear. Both hands are on the instrument, the right lowermost including the little finger. No finger holes are visible. The instrument is cylindrical but with a flared foot.
  • Book of Hours (late 15th century), illumination, 10 × 14 cm, Northern Netherlandish. Detail. Claremont (California): Honnold/Mudd Library, Special Collections. Ref. Website: Accent on Images: The Language of Illustrated Books (2005, col.) Marginal ornament at foot of page. A figure on the left of an abstract ornament plays a long cylindrical pipe (in green) with a very slightly flared bell. No details are visible, but this could represent a recorder.
  • Nativity (15th century), carved wood, Netherlandish. s’Hertogenbosch: Sint Janskathedraal. Ref. Postcard, Ernst van Mackelenbergh, Rosmalen (s. dat.) Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2004). One of six small scenes carved in wood depicting the birth and childhood of Christ, beneath an altarpiece depicting The Passion. Standing behind a wall at the right of the central scene is a shepherd who holds close to his lips an alto-sized pipe which is outwardly conical overall. Although he has both hands fully on, rather apart and left-hand uppermost, the artist shows three finger holes above the upper hand, three between the hands, and two below of which the lowest is quite close to the bell end. The uppermost hole is very close to the top end of the pipe. As shepherds are hardly ever shown with shawms at the Nativity this is very possibly a recorder.
  • Grotesque Playing a Recorder (1485–1510), stone sculpture, Netherlandish.  s’Hertogenbosch: Sint Janskathedraal. Ref. Glaudemans (2004, 2016); Arnold den Teuling (pers comm., 2017). One of 96 figures dating from 1485–1510 playing musical instruments on the buttresses supporting the vault. 39 originals survive; the rest were reproduced during the restoration of 1870–1875, including this one. A winged figure with pointed ears and a bear-like face sitting astride one of the buttresses plays a flared-bell duct-flute (probably a recorder), left hand uppermost. The beak, window/labium are very clearly depicted and 2–3 finger holes are visible, the rest covered by the player’s fingers, the thumb of his uppermost finger raised beside the instrument. The reconstructions were made by Antoon Goossen after plaster and clay models based on (very sketchy) drawings by the restoration architect Lambert Hezenmans (1841–1909).  Hezenmans’s drawing shows a trumpet or shawm with an impossibly thin mouth piece. The original was given to the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam, who described it in 1875 as “duivel de fluit blazend”. Other instruments include flute, shawm, bagpipes, tambourine (with jingle rings), cymbals, vihuela d’arco, double pipe, lute …
  • Musical Angels, relief-carved wood, ?15th century, Netherlandish. Bolsward Martinskerk, stalls. Ref. Website: Anges musiciens (2012 – col.) The church was renewed and enlarged in 1446 and 1461; its tower was built in the 15th century. Two angels play rebec and a pipe with a wedge-shaped mouthpiece which may be a crude representation of the pirouette of a shawm rather than the beak of a duct flute.
  • Musical Angels, relief-carved wood, ?15th century, Netherlandish. Bolsward: Martinskerk, stalls. Ref. Website: Anges musiciens (2012, col.) Church renewed and enlarged in 1446 and 1461; its tower was built in the 15th century. Three angels play triangle, small drum and tiny pipe, probably a duct flute.

Polish

  • Musikanten und Komödianten, Wandmalerei (1418), Polish. Lublin: Dreifaltigkeitskirche. Ref. Banach (1957: fig. 4). Watched by three rather dour-looking townsfolk, two musicians accompany acrobats. One of the acrobats stands on his head; the other seems to be jumping up and down on his knees. One of the musicians, a bearded man, plays a small drum with two sticks; the other, clean-shaven, plays a long conical pipe with five finger holes visible but others covered by his fingers. No beak or window/labium is visible, but the wind instrument may represent a recorder, though a shawm might be more likely.

Scottish

  • Angel Musician Playing a Pipe (1446), stone carving, Scottish. Rosslyn: Rosslyn Chapel. Ref. Langwill (1962, 95 & pl. 8); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). An angel musician plays a short steeply conical pipe, right hand uppermost. (Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.) notes that although there seems to be no window/labium the thumb and finger positions are consistent with a recorder, there appears to be an open finger hole for the little finger of the lowermost hand, and there is an incised ring at the foot. However, this instrument was identified as a shawm by Langwill (loc. cit.) which seems altogethere more likely, to me.
  • Angel Musician Playing a Pipe (15th century), stone carving, Scottish. Rosslyn: Rosslyn Chapel. Ref. YouTube video: Rosslyn Chapel: A Treasure in Stone (2016: 28.53 minutes). There is a second angel musician at this location depicting a conical pipe. Here, the instrument is played left hand uppermost and has a distinct foot, unlike the simple flared bell of the more shawm-like instrument above. All the player’s fingers of his lowermost (right) hand are covering their holes, but he has only four fingers! Nonetheless, this seems far more likely to represent a duct-flute (possibly a recorder) than the more shawm-like instrument above.

Spanish

  • Altarpiece of the Virgin Mary … with St Michael and St Ursula (ca 1425), ‘Catalan Master’, possibly studio of Borrassà. Brussels: Koninklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van België, No. 3750. Ref. Braggard & de Hen (1967: 15, pl. 2, col. ) The Virgin and Child, enthroned, are surrounded by angel musicians playing vielle, lute and two flared pipes. On their left, a black-winged angel plays his pipe left hand uppermost. The mouthpiece of his instrument is much damaged and the latter could be a shawm with a pirouette, but the pigment shows what could be the window of a duct flute, and the player’s cheeks are not extended. On the right, a red-winged angel plays his pipe right hand uppermost. The mouthpiece could be the staple of a shawm, with no pirouette but here, also, marks suggest the window of a duct flute; there is the hint of paired finger holes at the bottom, and the flare is rather slight for a shawm. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.)
  • Altarpiece, The Life of the Virgin: Nativity (late 14th century – early 15th century), tempera on wood panel, Catalan. Detail. Douai: Musée de la Chatreuse, Iv. 2830. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000; 2006: 17-18 & fig. 17, col.); Arnold den Teuling (pers. comm., 2015) Mary and Joseph sit either side of the crib behind which are two admiring beasts, an ox and a donkey which, according to folklore are warming the child by their breathing. In the background and to the left is a walled city; to the right a shepherd with his sheep. In the background centre, behind Joseph, a shepherd sits beside a table playing a cylindrical pipe, clearly a recorder, of alto/tenor size. The player’s right hand covers the lower finger holes, including the outstretched little finger which seems to be struggling to reach across to a non-offset lowermost hole. The left hand is positioned to show three finger holes, marked in contrasting black above the positioned right hand. There is some deterioration at the mouthpiece end, but it is there is clearly a window/labium partly covered with gold, either in restoration or originally. The player’s lips are very relaxed, almost open showing a beaked end to the instrument. At the bell end, just below the outstretched little finger, are two incised rings close to each other, and a very slight expansion. The bore opening at the end is just visible, but gives the impression that the bore is cylindrical.This work has been attributed to a pupil of Pere or Jaime Serra (ca 1350 or later). However, the quality of the work is decidedly inferior to that of Serra. Rather, the Annunciation to the Shepherds at the top right seems to be closely modeled on Byzantine representations, with the seated pipe-playing shepherd not noticing the angel above, and in the disposition of the sheep on the rocks. Rosa Alcoy of the Université de Barcelona comments that this fragment is certainly Catalan but with no stylistic association with the dominating late 14th-century Serra Brothers atelier. Notes (in part) by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Virgin and Angels (1410–1440), in the style of Ramón de Mur, part of an altarpiece from Cornellà. Barcelona: Museu Diocesà de Barcelona. Ref. Rowland-Jones (1997: 10, fig. 7, b&w); Gudiol (1986: 710); Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Musical angels entertain the Virgin and Child, including three singers, two playing lutes, and one playing a cylindrical duct flute, the beak, window/labium and holes for 7 fingers with some to spare and so probably representing a recorder.
  • Angel Musicians (ca 1490–1500), spandrel decoration, possibly Flemish. Detail. El Paular: Monasterio de Santa María, Church. Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Charles Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “The Monasterio de El Paular was founded in 1390 in the reign of Juan I. The church was rebuilt in the 18th century after an earthquake in 1755. “On the spandrel of doorway to the retro-sanctuary, on the left of the altarpiece, are two angel musicians: one with a harp; the other holding a pipe, left hand lowermost (in fact holding the instrument almost at the bell end, which is damaged). The angel’s right hand is close to a circular hole which may represent the window/labium of a duct flute, being just beneath the beaked mouthpiece. There are six finger holes in line and equally spaced, with possibly a seventh offset hole by the angel’s damaged hand, near the bell end. The instrument is of alto size and is cylindrical and fairly fat, with perhaps a very slight bell flare (but damaged here)” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Altarpiece (early 15th century), Spanish. Vic: Museu Episcopal. Ref. Rowland-Jones (1996). Shows a shepherd playing a duct flute (flageolet or a recorder).
  • Veronica Reliquary (1496), Spanish. Girona: Cathedral, Treasury, TCG 72. Ref. Cathedral of Girona: postcard No. 50 (col.); Post (1958, Part 2: 681; Rowland-Jones (1997b, Part 3: 9–10, fig. 14a & b, b&w); Website, flickr: Wilfried Praet’s photostream (2016, col.) The reliquary is of gilded silver in the form of a double veronica, the Madonna and Child painted on the obverse and the Salvator Mundi painted on the reverse, both painted in 1520–1525 (i.e. later than the metal-work) by Joan de Borgonya (op. 1503–1525). The base of the reliquary bears the coat of arms belonging to Bishop Berenguer de Pau, who supervised the see of Girona between 1486 and 1506. On the supporting frame a silver angel plays a basset recorder with a bocal; (predating Virdung’s description of it in 1511); another plays a tenor recorder. Other angels play harp and tambourine, The paintings have also been attributed to the Master of Canapost.
  • Portal of the Apostles, (commenced 1463), stone carving, Spanish. Murcia: Catedral de Santa Maria. Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001, 2002). “There are two recorder-playing angels among the stone carvings. Both recorders are of alto size, although the second is slightly narrower. They are cylindrical, with slight flare towards the bell end. The larger recorder has a wide bore opening. In both cases, right hand upper and all fingers down, although in the larger recorder part of hole three is visible and all of another hole below the right hand. At the bottom of this recorder, fairly close to the bell end and the player’s left hand little finger, is one very clearly marked offset hole. With the smaller instrument, part of hole one shows and again there is a hole between the hands, and a little finger hole, although it is not offset. In both cases the window/labium is very clearly shown” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Adoration of the Shepherds (? late 15th century), bas-relief, Spanish. La Fuensanta (near Murcia): Santuario de la Virgen. Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “A shepherd holds a soprano sized recorder close to his mouth in playing position, with his right hand beside the upper part of instrument where four holes are shown, and with his left hand covering the instrument but with one offset (to the left) little finger hole, near the quite strong bell flare, with wood thickening. The window/labium is clearly depicted, after the short windway” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Angel (15th century), carving, Spanish. Valladolid: Colegio de San Gregorio, Museo Nacional de Esultura. Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “An angel plays one soprano/alto duct flute whilst holding two others. The end of the played instrument is broken off but the window/labium is clear, although worn. The other two instruments are too damaged to identify but are of the same general size and appearance as the played instrument (played with one hand). No finger holes show” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Stained glass (13–15th century), Spanish. León: Catedral, West front rose window. Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “Probably from the earlier period, an angel plays a large wind instrument which looks as though it could be about four feet long. The angel holds the instrument centrally with his left hand and presses it against his face, where all the features have worn off. The top of this instrument is slightly outwardly conical towards the mouthpiece, but a short way down the body becomes cylindrical and at that point there is a dark mark which could possibly represent at window/labium – again the staining is unclear. No finger holes are visible, but there is one ring-mark about a third of the way down the instrument. Below the angel’s hand is the very definite shape of a fontanelle, after which there is a curving expansion to a wide bell end. On the card index to this instrument in the Ministry of Culture’s Centre for Music Documentation (CMD) in Madrid, it was first marked shawm, and then changed to flauta de pico” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Liber Precum et Orationum, initial for ‘Exultate Deo, adjutori nostro’: David with Musicians (15th century), manuscript, Spanish. San Lorenzo: El Escorial, Library, Cód. Lat. a-III-15 f.79v. Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “David plays a dulcimer with two quills. Other musicians play harp, trumpet and recorder. The recorder is held away from the mouth, showing the beak and a mark for the window/labium partly covered by the player’s left hand. His right hand is also across the instrument, below which are two holes, almost side by side, the left-hand one slightly larger than the right-hand one. (This is possibly a double hole, which appears on some early wind instruments.) There are then two further holes, and possibly one hole offset to the left, but the bell end is obscured by the edge of this oval picture” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Manuscript (late 15th century), Spanish. San Lorenzo: El Escorial, Library Lat. d-IV-13, Devo ionarium f.206 Ref. Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “This is an example of late 15th-century Isabelino style. An angel with a probable duct flute appears with others playing a small harp and a lute. The duct flute is difficult to identify because it is in the shade behind the harpist and no holes are visible. The bell end, however, is Virdung-style” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Virgin and Child with Angel Musicians (15th century), painting, Spanish. Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w, as 14th century). The Virgin enthroned with the Holy Child on her lap is surrounded by angel musicians singing and playing a gittern, porcine psaltery, a tiny harp and a cylindrical duct flute (possibly a recorder). A cleric kneels beside the throne. Side panels depict various saints. The instruments depicted here bear a striking resemblance to those in paintings by Pere Serra (c.1357–1409).
  • Virgin and Child with Angel Musicians (15th century), painting, Spanish. Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w, as 14th century). The Virgin enthroned with the Holy Child on her lap is surrounded by angel musicians singing and playing a gittern, a harp, a lute and a pipe with a slightly flared bell with a decorative bead near the foot. The photograph from gallica gives insufficient detail to identify this as a duct flute but they do index it as such.
  • Nativity (15th century), carved stone capital, Spanish. Girona: Catedral, central Nave. Ref.Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). “An angel on the right of the Nativity plays a lute, and on the left angels play two recorders, both of canto/alto size. They are rather fat for their size, but each has a very clear window/labium. The right-hand one shows the unused offset little finger hole, and there is a hole placed low down the instrument on the left hand one. Both angels have all fingers down, in good recorder-playing position, both with left hand lowermost. The instruments are cylindrical, with possibly a very slight bell end flare” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Virgin and Child with Musical Angels (15th century), painting, Spanish. Rome: Galleria Anna e Luigi Parmeggiani. Ref. Website, flickr: Alessio Bacci’s photostream (2015, b&w). The Virgin and Child, enthroned, are surrounded by angel musicians who sing and play harp, lute, waisted fiddle, organetto, folded trumpet and two pipes which appear to be duct flutes, the hands and fingers perfectly disposed for recorder-playing. This bears a striking resemblance to a painting attributed to a Maestro di Santa Liestra in the Collezione Muntadas, Barcelona (see immediately below).
  • Virgin and Child with Musical Angels (15th century), painting, Spanish. Barcelona: Collezione Muntadas. Ref. Website, flickr: Alessio Bacci’s photostream (2015, b&w). The Virigin and Child, enthroned, are surrounded by angel musicians who sing and play harp, lute, waisted fiddle, organetto, folded trumpet and two pipes which appear to be duct flutes, the hands and fingers perfectly disposed for recorder-playing. This bears a striking similarity to an anonymous painting in the Galleria Anna e Luigi Parmeggiani,  Rome (see immeidately above). This has been attributed to attributed to Maestro di Santa Liestra, who seems to be obscure.
  • Tryptych of San Martino: central panel: Virgin and Child (early 15th century), tempera on panel, Spanish. Detail. Oristano: Antiquarium Arborense, Museo archeologico “Giuseppe Pau”. Website, flickr: Alessio Bacci’s photostream (2015, col.) Originally from the church of San Martino. The Virgin and Child, enthroned are surrounded by musical angels playing shawm, two gitterns, harp, rebec, organetto, bagpipe and a duct flute (possibly a recorder), only the head visible, but the window/labium clearly depicted. A lunette above depicts a dramatic Crucifixion, with the Virgin and the Holy Women, the division of the robes of Christ, the armed guard at the crucifixes, the offer to Jesus of a sponge soaked in vinegar. Only the central and the right wing of the altarpiece survive. This has been variously assigned to the Master of Guimerà and then to Ramon de Mur, but today it is assigned to an anonymous Catalan-Aragonese master of high standing of the early 15th century.
  • Musical Monkey (1477-1504), stone relief, Spanish (15th century). Toledo: Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, cloister, stone relief, late 15th century. Ref. Ref. Website: Renata Takkenberg-Krohn, Galerias, Musica (2013, col.) Ref. Website: Renata Takkenberg-Krohn, Galerias, Musica (2013, col.) Seated on a kettledrum, a grinning monkey holds a duct flute which is square in cross-section with 3 finger holes on the front surface and two visible on the right surface (we can assume there are more hidden beneath his hand). The Franciscan Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes was founded by King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile to commemorate both the birth of their son, Prince John, and their victory at the Battle of Toro (1476) over the army of Afonso V of Portugal. Construction began in 1477 following plans drawn by architect Juan Guas, and was completed in 1504. In 1809 the monastery was badly damaged by Napoleon’s troops during their occupation of Toledo, and abandoned in 1835. Restoration began in 1883 but was not completed until 1967. The monastery was restored to the Franciscan order in 1954.
  • Angel Musicians (1452–1465), stone relief, Spanish (15th century). Toledo: Santa Iglesia Catedral Primada de Toledo, Puerta de los Leones (or Puerta de Sol), archivolts. Ref. Website: Renata Takkenberg-Krohn, Galerias, Musica (2013, col.) The Gate of the Lions was built between the years 1460–1466, under the mandate of Archbishop Alonso Carrillo de Acuña; with traces by Hannequin de Bruxelles and Egas Cueman in collaboration with the Flemish sculptors Pedro and Juan Guas and Juan Alemán, author of the Apostolate. These artists were in charge of a large workshop that had prestigious stonemasons and carvers.The statuary on the door is one of the best Spanish-Flemish ensembles of the 15th century, especially the Virgin of the mullion and the statues on the jambs. The cherubs and musician angels that accompany Mary’s ascent to heaven are works of art executed with great delicacy. The façade was altered by Durango and Salvatierra in the 18th century, as in the other doors, to consolidate the building. The eleven medallions located above the last archivolt represent prophets and patriarchs; the one in the centre represents the Virgin Mary. The door is crowned by a large statue of Saint Augustine praying.The archivolts depict groups of musical angels singing and playing instruments, including: trumpet, shawm & large horn; bagpipe ?psaltery; pipe & tabor, square drum & ? vielle (damaged); singer, nakers & hand-bells; ?a bellows-driven instrument with a keyboard and a carved head (a kind of regal, perhaps), hurdy-gurdy & recorder; two singers & organetto; large recorder, double pipes & small horn; triangle (with jingle rings), porcine psaltery & double pipes; three singers; pipe & tabor, cymbals & ?singer; harp & two singers; organetto, mandola & ?clappers; tambourine (with jingles), ?rectangular psaltery & singer; ?castanets & citole; rebec & citole; harp (King David); ?vihuela.

Swiss

  • Embroidered chasuble, (1390–1420), from Thun, near Berne, Switzerland. Riggisberg: Abegg-Stiftung, Inv. 153. Ref. Harrison (1966: 319–335). “An early iconographic evidence for the big-bore straight flute (the pre-baroque recorder) is its depiction, being played by a shepherd, on an embroidered chasuble dated 1390–1420” (Harrison, loc. cit: 329). This chasuble was exhibited at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London in 1963. The marked bell flare and the hole (or holes) very close to the bell end are more suggestive of a shawm than a recorder. No window/labium area is shown and the mouthpiece and position of the player’s lips and his inflated cheeks do not suggest this as a recorder. Only the lower (right-)hand little-finger position seems more recorder-like than shawm-like – it is rather low down the instrument for a shawm. Elsewhere, Harrison describes 6-holed pipes as ‘recorders’. In fact, in the scene Annunciation to the Shepherds both shepherds have instruments, one playing an ambiguous pipe (recorder, shawm or bagpipe chanter), the other with a smaller similar instrument dangling from his belt (Rowland-Jones, pers. comm.)
  • The Month of May (with the Abbot, Johann Stantenatt), from the Salem Breviary (1493), manuscript illumination, Swiss. Heidelberg: Universitätsbibliothek. Ref. Rott (1933: 3, as 1493/94); Rasmussen (1999, Lute). “The abbot is in a little boat on a lake, serenaded by a woman (?) playing a lute and a man playing a recorder” (Rasmussen loc cit.) Not seen.

Provenance unknown

  • [Flute Player] (ca 1485), painted wood-carving, 121.9 cm high, artist & provenance unknown. Formerly Gallerie Schaffer, present whereabouts unknown. Ref. Blumka II Gallery (2007: front cover). Depicts a young man holding up a superb representation of a recorder. The exterior of the instruments is slightly conical with a brief but distinctly flared bell end, and with no ornamentation. All finger holes and the window/labium area are clearly shown, The player has his left hand lowermost in playing position.
  • From the works of Virgil: [Shepherd] (ca 1490/1495), artist & provenance unknown. F D 493, f. 10v. Ref. Boragno (1998: 14, b&w). A man in a hood holds a long flared-bell duct flute (? tenor recorder) in one hand. The window and a number of finger holes are clearly visible.
  • [Untitled] (15th century), artist & provenance unknown. F Lm 391, f. 28. Ref. Boragno (1998: 13, b&w). A man in a hat plays a duct flute which is decidedly square in cross-section! A number of finger holes are shown, but none are paired and all are in line. However, from the manner in which the player’s lowermost little finger is crooked it probably represents a recorder.
  • Two Angel Musicians (15th century), stone relief, artist & provenance unknown. Location unknown. Ref. ADEM 3: 120 (1981); Archiv Moeck. One angel plays the lute whilst the other sings, holding in one hand a tabor and in the other a small flared-bell pipe, probably a duct flute.
  • From a Book of Hours: The Month of May (15th century), illumination, provenance unknown. Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Beneath a canopy in a boat a man and a woman play pipes (possibly recorders) and a woman plays a lute. On the opposite bank is a windmill.
  • A Trio of Recorder-playing Angels (?15th century), artist & provenance unknown. Location unknown. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999, detail). A trio of angels playing cylindrical recorders of the Dordrecht kind against a background of leafy decorations.