Historic methods & tutors

This is a list of original methods and tutors for the recorder written prior to the twentieth century.  It includes links to scans of the originals available online.  Details of facsimiles, translations, subsequent and modern editions, secondary literature and relevant examples for other wind instruments (notably flageolet, flute and cornetto) are available in the more extensive general bibliography  accessible both as a static list and as an interactive database via the topics menu immediately to the right of this page.

  • Agricola, Martin. 1529. Musica instrumentalis deudsch ynn welcher begriffen ist, wie man nach dem gesange auff mancherley Pfeiffen lernen sol, Auch wie auff die Orgel, Harffen, Lauten, Geigen, und allerley Instrument und Seytenspiel, nach der rechtgegrüdten Tabelthur sey abzusetsen [A German Instrumental music, in which is Contained: How to Learn to Play Many Kinds of Wind Instruments from Vocal Notation, and also How to Set Music into the Appropriate Tablature for the Organ, Harp, Lute, Fiddle, and all Kinds of Keyboard and String Instruments]. Wittenberg: George Rhau.
  • –––. 1545. Musica instrumentalis deudsch, darin das Fundament und Application der Finger und Zungen, auff mancherley Pfeiffen als Flöten, Kromphörner, Zincken, Bomhard, Schalmeyen, Sackpfeiffen und Schweitzerpfeiffen etc. Darzu von dreierley Geigen, als welschen, polisschen und kleinen Handgeiglein und wie die Griffe drauff auch auff Lauten künstlich abgemessen werden, item vom Monochordo, auch von künstlicher Stimmung der Orgelpfeiffen und Zimbeln, etc. Kürtzlich begriffen, und für unsere Schulkinder und andere gmeine Senger aufs verstendlichst und einfeltigst jtzund newlich zugericht [A German instrumental music, containing the basic rules and application of the fingers and tongue on many kinds of wind instruments, such as recorders, crumhorns, cornetts, pommer, shawms, bagpipes, and Swiss flutes, etc. In addition, concerning three kinds of fiddles, the Italian, the Polish, and the little hand-fiddle, and how the finger positions may be skillfully gauged on them, and also on the lute. Also concerning the monochord and the skillful tuning of organ pipes and small bells, etc. Briefly summarized and now newly arranged for our school children and other beginning singers in the most understandable and simple way]. Wittenberg: George Rhau.
  • Anonymous. 1510. “Anleitung zum Blockflötenspiel: Introductio Geschriben uf Pfifen.” Basel. Ms. F X 38. Universitätsbibliothek.
  • –––. 1630.Tutto il bisognevole per sonar il flauto da 8 fori con pratica et orecchia. [Everything necessary for playing the recorder with skill and taste.] (MS, ?1630). Manuscript. Biblioteca Marciana, Venice, Mss Ital C.IV. No. 486. [Although the manuscript is clearly marked 1630, dates of 50–100 years later have been suggested.]
  • –––. 1695.The Compleat Flute-Master, Or, The Whole Art of Playing on Ye Rechorder, Layd Open in Such Easy & Plain Instructions, That by Them Ye Meanest Capacity May Arrive to a Perfection on That Instrument, with a Collection of Ye Newest & Best Tunes, Composed by the Most Able Masters, to Which Is Added an Admirable Solo. London: J. Hare and J. Walsh.
  • –––. 1706. The Fifth Book of the New Flute Master. Containing the Most Perfect Rules and Easiest Directions for Learners on the Flute yet Extant. Together Wth an Extraordinary Collection of Aires Both Italian and English …London: J. Walsh & J. Hare.
  • –––. 1706. The Flute-Master Compleat Improv’d or The Gentlemans Diversion Made More Easie than Any yet Extant. Book the First. Containing Plain & Easie Directions for Young Beginners with Variety of the Newest and Best Tunes, Compos’d & Contriv’d for That Instrument By the Most Eminent Masters to Which Is Added, an Excellent Solo by Mr. Tho: Deane of Ye Queen’s Theater, Also a Scale Shewing How to Transpose Tunes out of Any Keys for Ye Flute. London: John Young.
  • –––. 1728. The New Flute Master for the Year 1729 Containing the Most Compleat Rules & Directions for Learners on Ye Flute. London: J. Walsh & Joseph Hare.
  • –––. c. 1730. The Second Book of the Flute Master Improv’d Containing the Plainest Instructions for Learners, with Variety of Easy Lessons by the Best Masters. London: D. Wright Jnr.
  • –––. c. 1735. Directions for Playing on the Flute with a Scale for Transposing Any Piece of Musick to Ye Properest Keys for That Instrument … London: Benjamin Cooke.
  • –––. c. 1746. The Compleat Tutor for the Flute Containing the Best and Easiest Instructions for Learners to Obtain a Proficiency … London: John Simpson.
  • –––. 1750. The Compleat Tutor for the Flute Containing the Best and Easiest Instructions for Learners to Obtain a Proficiency …. London: John Simpson.
  • –––. 1754. The Compleat Tutor for the Flute Containing the Best and Easiest Instruction for Learners to Obtain a Proficiency …. London: Peter Thompson.
  • –––. 1754. The Muses Delight. An Accurate Collection of English and Italian Songs, Cantatas and Duetts, Set to Music for the Harpsichord, Violin, German-Flute, &c With Instructions for the Voice, Violin, Harpsichord or Spinnet, German-Flute, Common-Flute, Hautboy, French-Horn, Bassoon and Bass Violin …. Liverpool: John Sadler. Subsequent editions (1756, 1757, 1758) entitled Apollo’s Cabinet: or the Muses Delight…
  • –––. c. 1760.The Compleat Flute-Master Containing the Best and Easiest Rules to Learn That Favorite Instrument …. London: Thomas Bennett.
  • –––. 1765. The Compleat Tutor for the Flute Containing the Best and Easiest Instruction for Learners to Obtain a Proficiency …. London: Cha[rle]s. & Sam[ue]l. Thompson.
  • –––. 1765. The Compleat Tutor for the Flute Containing the Best and Easiest Instruction for Learners to Obtain a Proficiency …. London: R. Bremner.
  • –––. 1775. The Compleat Tutor for the Flute Containing the Best and Easiest Instruction for Learners to Obtain a Proficiency …. London: Cha[rle]s. & Sam[ue]l. Thompson.
  • –––. 1775. “Schaale voor Bekfluit [Recorder School].” The Hague. Gemeentemuseum.
  • –––. c. 1780. Compleat Instructions, for the Common Flute, Containing the Easiest and Most Modern Methods for Learners to Play, Carefully Corrected by Eminent Masters …. London: Longman & Broderip. Reprinted as Apollo’s Cabinet or the Muses Delight … by Liverpool Editions (1756, 1757 and 1758).
  • –––. c. 1790. New and Compleat Instructions, for the Common Flute, Containing the Easiest and Most Modern Methods for Learners to Play, to Which Is Added A Favourite Collection of Songs, Airs, Minuets, Marches, Duetts, &c. Properly Adapted for the Instrument.London: Preston & Sons.
  • Banister, John II. 1681. The Most Pleasant Companion, or Choice New Lessons for the Recorder or Flute, Being a New Collection of New Lessons, Set Forth by Dots and Notes. To Which Is Added, Plain and Easie Rules and Instructions for Young Beginners. London: John Hudgebut & John Clerk.
  • Berlin, Johann Daniel. 1724. Musicaliske Elementer eller Anleedning til Forstand paa De første Ting udi Musiquen vor udi Den Musicaliske Signatur i den Bruug som den nu haves hos de fleeste, saa ogsaa Applicaturen paa nogle saa kaldte strygende og blæsende Instrumenter og andet mere Musiquen tilhørende [Musical Elements or the Opportunity to Understand the Basic Elements in Music as Well as the Notation of Music, How it is Applied by Most People, as Well as the Function of Some So-called String and Wind Instruments and Other Aspects that Belong to Music]. Trondheim.
  • Bismantova, Bartolomeo. (1677) 1694. “Compendio musicale. In cui s’insegna à Prinipianti il vero modo, per imeperare con facilità, le Regole del Canto Figurato, e Canto Fermo; come anche per Comorre, e suonare il Basso Continouo, il Flauto, Cornetto, e Violino; come anche per Acordare Organi, e Cembali. L[Musical compendium, in which is taught to beginners the true method to command with ease the rules of figured song and plainsong, as well as to compose and play the basso continuo, recorder, cornett, and violin, and also the organ and harpsichord].” Ferrara. Ms Reggiani E. 41. Biblioteca Municipale di Reggio Emilia.
  • Blanckenburgh, Geerbrant Quirinjnszoon van. 1654. Onderwyzinghe Hoemen alle de Toonen en halve Toonen, die meest gebruyckelyck zyn, op de Hand-Fluyt Zal konnen t’eenemael zuyver Blaezen, en hoe men op yeder ’t Gemackelycks een Trammelat zal konnen maken, heel dienstigh voor de Lief-hebbers [Instructions for How One Can Learn to Play all the Most Usual Tones and Semitones On the Recorder in Tune, and How One Can Make a Trill in the Easiest Way on Each One – Very Useful for Music Lovers]. Amsterdam: Paulus Matthysz.
  • Brossard, Sébastien de. 1703. Dictionnaire de la musique contenant une explication des termes Grecs, Latins, Italiens, & François les plus usitez dans la musique [Dictionary of Music Containing an Explanation of Greek, Latin, Italian and French Terms Most Used in Music]. 3rd ed. Paris: Christophe Ballard.
  • Cardano, Girolamo. 1546. “De musica [On music].” Rome. Ms 5850. Vatican.
  • –––. 1663. Hieronymi Cardani mediolensis opera omnia: Philosophi ac Medici Celeberrimi opera omnia: tam hectenus excusa; hic tamen aucta et emendata; quam nunquam alias visa, ac primum ex Auctoris ipsius Autographis eruta [The Complete Works of Geronimo Cardan, Celebrated Philospher and Medical Doctor from Milan …] Edited by Carolus Sponius. Vol. 10. Lyon: Jean Antoine Huguetan and Marc Antione Ravaud.
  • Carr, Robert. 1686.The Delightful Companion, or Choice New Lessons for the Recorder or Flute, to Which Is Added, Several Lessons for Two and Three Flutes to Play Together. Also Plain and Easie Instructions for Beginners, and the Several Graces Proper to This Instrument. 2nd ed. London: John Playford & John Carr.
  • Dalla Casa, Girolamo. 1584. Il Vero Modo di diminuir con tutte le sorti di stromenti di fiato, e corda, e di voce humana … [The Correct Way of Playing Divisions on All Types of Wind and Stringed Instruments, and With the Human Voice …]. 2 vols. Venice: Angelo Gardano.
  • Diderot, Dennis, and Jean le Rond d’Alembert. 1751. Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers … [Encyclopedia or Analytical Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades]. 17 vols. Paris (vols 1-7) & Neufchâtel (vols 8-17): Briasson & Faulche.
  • Douwes, Claas. 1699. Grondig ondersoek van de toonen der musijk. [A Thorough Examination of Music]. Franeker: Adriaan Heins.
  • Eisel, Johann Phillipp. 1738. Musicus αυτoδιδακτoζ oder, Der sich selbst informirende Musicus, bestehend sowohl in Vocal-als üblicher Instrumental-musique [The Musical Autodidact or The Self-taught Musician, for both Vocal and Common Instrumental Music]. Erfurt: Johann Michael Funcken.
  • Eyck, Jacob van. 1646, 1649 & 1654, 1656. Der fluyten lust-hof [The Flute Pleasure Garden]. Amsterdam: Paulus Matthysz.
  • Francoeur, Louis-Joseph. 1772. Diapason général de tous les instrumens à vent avec des observations sur chacun d’eux … [The General Compass of all Wind Instruments with Observations on Each of Them …]. Paris: Des Lauriers.
  • Freillon-Poncein, Jean-Pierre. 1700. La véritable manière d’apprendre à jouer en perfection du hautbois, de la flûte et du flageolet, avec les principes de la musique pour la voix et pour toutes sortes d’instrumens. [The True Way to Learn to Play with Perfection the Oboe, Recorder, and Flageolet, With the Principles of Music for the Voice and all Kinds of Instruments]. Paris: Jacques Collombat.
  • Ganassi, Silvestro. 1535. Opera intitulata Fontegara. La quale i[n]segna a sonare de flauto cho[n] tutta l’arte opportuna a esso i[n]strumento massime il diminuire il quale sarà utile ad ogni i[n]strumento di fiato et chorde: et a[n]chora a chi si dileta di canto. [Work Entitled “Fontegara”, which Instructs in Playing the Recorder with all the Proper Art of this Instrument, Especially the Creation of Diminutions that will be Useful for all Wind and String Instruments as well as Those who Practice Singing]. Venice: Silvestro Ganassi.
  • Hill, William. 1717. The Bird Fancyer’s Delight or Choice Observations and Directions Concerning the Teaching of All Sorts of Singing Birds after the Flagelet and Flute Rightly When Made as to Size and Tone with Lessons Properly Compos’d within the Compass and Faculty of Each Bird …. London: Richard Meares; John Walsh.
  • Hotteterre, Jacques. 1707, 1713, 1720, 1722, 1760. Principes de la flûte traversière, ou flûte d’Allemagne, de la flûte à bec, ou flûte douce, et du haut-bois diviséz par traitéz [Principles of the Flute, Recorder, and Oboe, Divided into Treatises]. Paris: Christophe Ballard.
  • Hudgebut, John. 1679. A Vade Mecum for the Lovers of Musick, Shewing the Excellency of the Rechorder with Some Notes and Directions for the Same. Also, Some New Ayres Never Before Published. London: N. Thompson for John Hudgebut.
  • Huyghens, Christiaan. 1686. “Tons de ma flute [Notes on my Recorder].” Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden. 1, p. 231. Codex Hugenianus.
  • Jambe de Fer, Philbert. 1556. Epitome Musical Des Tons, Sons et Accordz, Es Voix Humaines, Fleustes d’Alleman, Fleustes À Neuf Trous, Violes, & Violons. Lyons: Michel du Bois.
  • Jambe de Fer, Philbert. (1556) 1964. L’Epitome musical de Philibert Jambe de Fer (1556). Annales musicologiques 6: 341-346 (1963). Includes an introductory essay by François Lesure. Edited by François Lesure. Societé de Musique d’Autrefois.
  • Klein, Johann J. 1801. Lehrbuch der theoretischen Musik in systematischer Ordnung [Systematic textbook of musical theory]. Leipzig & Gera: W. Heinsius.
  • Loulié, Étienne. (1694) 1701-2. “Méthode pour apprendre à jouer de la flûte douce [Method for Learning to Play the Recorder].” Paris. Fonds fr. n.a. 5355, XIX-XX. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Revised and simplified in 1701 or 1702, An edition was published in 1741, Nuremberg: Johann Jacob Creme.
  • Luscinius, Ottmar. (1518) 1536. Musurgia seu praxis musicae: illius primo quae instrumentis agitur certa ratio [Musurgia, or The Practice of Music: A Sure Method of Music Which Deals First With Instruments]. Strasbourg: Joannem Schottum. Written 1518. Loosely based on Virdung (1511).
  • Majer, Joseph F.B.C. 1732. Museum musicum theoretico practicum, das ist, Neuroeffneter theoretisch-und practischer Music-Saal … [Thoretical and practical musical museum; that is, Newly disclosed theoretical and practical music room]. 1st ed. Nuremberg: George Michael Majer.
  • ———. 1741. Museum musicum theoretico practicum, das ist, Neuroeffneter theoretisch-und practischer Music-Saal … [Thoretical and practical musical museum; that is, Newly disclosed theoretical and practical music room]. 2nd ed. Nuremberg: Johann Jacob Cremer.
  • Matthysz, Paulus. 1649. Vertoninge en onderwyzinge op de hand-fluit [(Fingering) Depictions and Instructions for the Recorder]. Amsterdam: Paulus Matthysz. A second edition was published in 1655.
  • Mersenne, Marin. 1637. Seconde Partie de l’Harmonie Universelle … [Second Part of “Universal Harmony” …] Paris: Pierre Ballard. http://imslp.org/wiki/Harmonie_universelle_(Mersenne,_Marin)
  • Minguet y Yrol, Pablo. 1754. Reglas, y advertencias generales que enseñan el modo de tañer todos los instrumentos mejores, ye mas usuales … [Rules and General Advice that Teaches the Method of Playing all the Best and Most Common Instruments.] Part VI. Reglas, y advertencias generales para tañer la flauta traversera, la flauto dulce, y la flautilla, con varios tañidas, demonstradas, y figuradas en diferentes laminas finas, por musica, y cifra, para que qualquier aficionado las pueda comprehender con mucha facilidas, y sin maestro … [Rules and General Advice for Playing the Flute, Recorder, and Pipe, with Various Descriptions, Fingering Charts, and Fine Illustrations, for Music and its Notation, so that Any Amateur Can Understand it Easily and Without a Teacher]. Madrid: Joachim Ibarra.
  • Praetorius, Michael. 1619. Syntagma musicum ex veterum & recentiorum ecclesiasticorum authorum lectione, polyhistorum consignatione, variarum linguarum notatione, hodierne seculi usurpatione, ipsius denique musicæ artis obsrvatione: in cantorum, organistarum, organœoporum, cæterorumque; musiciam scientiam amantium & tranctantium gratiam collectum; et secundum hunc generalem indicem toti operi præfixum, in quatuor tomos distributum, à Michaele Praetorio Creutzbergensi …  [A Musical Treatise gathered from a reading of old and new ecclesiastical authors, from the teaching of learned men, from writings in various languages, from modern usage, and finally from observation of the art of music itself: for the benefit of signers, instrumentalists, instrument makers, and others who love and deal with the science of music; arranged in four volumes according to this general index prefixed to the whole work by Michael Praetorius of Kreuzburg …] Vol. 2: De Organographia [On musical instruments]. Wolfenbüttel: Elias Holwein.
  • Olofsen, Arnoldus. 1734. Al de toonen van de fluyt abec volgens den nieuwen trant [All the Notes of the Recorder According to the New Manner].
  • Prelleur, Peter. (1730) 1731. The Modern Musick-Master or The Universal Musician. London: Printing Office in Bow Church Yard.
  • Quantz, Johann J. 1752. Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte tranversiere zu spielen. [Essay on How to Play the Flute]. Berlin: Chrétien Frédéric Voss.
  • Quantz, Johann J. 1752. Essai d’une mé pour apprendre à jouer de la flûte traversiere [Essay on How to Play the Flute]. Berlin: Chrétien Frédéric Voss.
  • Reynvaan, Joos V. (1789) 1795. Muzijkaal kunst-woordenboek … [Dictionary of the Art of Music]. Amsterdam: Wouter Braue. Covers A–M only, but the article “Flauta Bocca (Italiaansch)” concerns the recorder.
  • Rognoni, Riccardo. 1592. Passagi per potersi essercitae nel diminuire terminatamente con ogni sorte d’instrumenti et anco diversi passaggi per la semplice voce humana [Passages for Practice in Diminution and Several Similar Pieces for the Human Voice]. Venice: Giacomo Vincenti.
  • Rutherford, David. 1760. The Compleat Tutor for the Flute Containing the Best and Easiest Instruction for Learners to Obtain a Proficiency …. London: Da[vi]d. Rutherford.
  • Salter, Humphrey. 1683. The Genteel Companion: Being Exact Directions for the Recorder: With a Collection of the Best and Newest Tunes and Grounds Extant. London: Printed for Richard Hunt & Humphrey Salter.
  • Schickhardt, Johann C. 1710. Principes de la flûte contenant la manière d’en joüer & la connoissance de musique nécessaire pour cela / Avec quarante deux airs à 2 flûtes, Op. 12 [Principles of the Recorder, Containing the Way of Playing it and the Knowledge of Music Necessary for that / with 42 Airs for Two Recorders]. Amsterdam: Estienne Roger.
  • Speer, Daniel. 1697. Grund-richtiger kurtz-leicht-und nöthiger jetz wol-vermehrter Unterricth der musicalischen Kunst [Basic, Short, Easy, and Necessary, Instruction in the Art of Music, Now Augmented]. 2nd ed. Ulm: Georg Wilhelm Küchnen.
  • Stanesby, Thomas Jr. ?1732. “A New System of the Flute A’bec, or Common English-Flute.
  • Swaine, N. 1818. The Young Musician, or the Science of Music, Familiarly Explained; with a Glosary of Musical Terms, and Phrases. Sttourport: G. Nicholson.
  • Talbot, James. 1692. Untitled. Oxford. Music Ms 1187. Christ Church Library.
  • Tans’ur, William. 1746, 1753, 1756. A New Musical Grammar, Or, The Harmonical Spectator … 1st, 2nd & 3rd eds. London: Author &  Jacob Robinson.
  • Tans’ur, William. 1767. The Elements of Musick Display’d …  Book II. Containing, the Structure of Musical Instruments: With the Scale of Musick Applicable to Each; and Directions Thereunto. Viz. the Pitch-Pipe and Its Use: The Organ, or Harpsichord,: The Bassoon and Haut-Boy: The Bass Viol, Violin, and Guittar: The German and Common Flutes … Book III: The Elements of Musick Made Easy: Or, an Universal Introduction to the Whole Art of Musick. London: Stanley Crowder.
  • T.B.. 1772. The Compleat Musick-Master: Being Plain, Easie, and Familiar Rules for Singing, and Playing on the Most Useful Instruments Now in Vogue, According to the Rudiments of Musick. Viz, Violin, Bass Viol, Flute, Treble-Viol, Haut-Boy, Tenor Viol …. 3rd ed. London: William Pearson.
  • Oliveira  Titan, Dina Maria de. 2019. “The Origins of Instrumental Diminution in Renaissance Venice: Ganassi’s Fontegara.” Ph.D. dissertation, Utrecht: University of Utrecht, Humanities. http://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/375222.Titan, Dina. 2021. “New Research Developments on Silvestro Ganassi’s Opera Intitulata Fontegara.” Windkanal Bonus Material. https://www.windkanal.de/dove-manca-la-natura-bisogna-l-arte-sia-maestra.
  • Virdung, Sebastian. 1511. https://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/~db/0001/bsb00011703/images/index.html und aussgezogen durch Sebastianum Virdung Priesters von Amberg und alles Gesang auss den Noten in die Tabulaturen diser benanten dryer Instrumenten der Orgeln: der Lauten: und den Flöten transferieren zu lernen Kurtzlich gemacht zu eren dem hochwirdigen hoch gebornen Fürsten und Herren: Herr Wilhalmen Bischove zum Straszburg seynem gnedigen Herren [Music Translated into German and excerpted by Sebastian Virdung, priest of Amberg and everything there is to know about transcribing songs from notes into the tablatures of these three given instruments: the organ, the lute, and the recorder — made simple. In honor of his gracious lord, the most reverend, high-born prince and lord, Wilhelm, Bishop of Strassburg]. Basel & Strasburg.
  • Virdung, Sebastian. (1511) 1529. Livre plaisant et tres utile pour apprendre a faire & ordonner toutes tabulatures hors le discant, dont & par lesquelles lon peult facilement et legierement aprendre a jouer sur les Manicordion, Luc, et Flutes [Entertaining and Very Useful Book to Learn to Have at your Command all Tablatures Except the Discant, by Means of Which one can Easily and Swiftly Learn to Play on the Organ, Lute, and Recorder]. Antwerp: Vorsterman. A loose, partial, contemporaneous French translation of Virdung’s Musica getutscht (1511).
  • Virdung, Sebastian. (1511, 1529) 1568. Dit is een zeer schoon Boecxken, om te leeren maken alderhande tabulatueren wten Discante. Daer duer men lichtelijck mach leeren spelen opt Clavecordium luyte ende Fluyte. [This is a nice little book for learning all kinds of tablatures except the discant, by means of which one can easily learn to play the organ, lute and recorder]. Amsterdam: Jan van Ghelen.  Literal Flemish translation of the French translation of the 1529 French translation of Virdung’s Musica getuscht (1511).
  • Virgiliano, Aurelio. c. 1600. “Il dolcimelo d’Aurelio Virgiliano dove si contengono variati passaggi, e diminutioni cosi per voci, come per tutte sorte d’instrumenti musicale; con loro accordi, e modi di sonare [Aurelio Virgiliano’s Il dolcimelo, in which are found passaggi and diminutions either for voices or for all kinds of musical instruments; with their charts and methods of playing].” Bologna. Ms. C. 33. Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale.
  • Wright, Daniel. 1734. The Compleat Tutor for Ye Flute Containing the Newest Instructions for That Instrument. London: Author.
  • Wright, Daniel. 1745. The Compleat Tutor for Ye Flute Containing the Newest Instructions for That Instrument. London: John Johnson.
  • Wright, Daniel. 1746. The Compleat Tutor for Ye Flute Containing the Newest Instructions for That Instrument. London: John Simpson.

Cite this article as: Lander, Nicholas S. 1996–2022. Recorder Home Page: Technique: Historic methods & tutors. Last accessed 7 August 2022. https://www.recorderhomepage.net/technique/historic-methods-and-tutors/