Artists–I

Francesco Imperiali [Fernandi, Ferrando]

Italian artist who was patronized by Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali, whose name he took whilst living in Rome; his works include cabinet pictures of farmyard birds, animals and fish, such as roosters, rabbits and donkeys, and small studies for conversation pieces; born Milan (1679), died Rome (1740).

  • Conversation Piece, oil sketch, 50.0 × 39.5 cm, Francesco Imperiali (1679–1740). Penicuik House (Scotland): Private Collection. Ref. Waterhouse (1955, 3/1: 105, fig. 4, b&w); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 372.F391.90[b]; Rasmussen (2002, Keyboard).  Depicts family making music: a woman playing a harpsichord, a man playing a cello (or viol) and another holding a recorder. A woman seated with a child at her side holds a sheet of music.
  • Saint Cecilia Playing the Organ Accompanied by Putti, black chalk drawing, 27.1 × 20.0 cm, Francesco Imperiali (1679–1740). Ref. Website: Christies (2008 – col.) London: Christies, Sale 7605, Old Masters and 19th-century Drawings, 8 July 2008, Lot 48. Cecilia seated at the organ, gazes heavenward. Beside her a young standing angel plays lute. Another, behind her plays tambourine. Before her a small seated putto plays a recorder with what appears to be a metal-sheathed beak; the foot is hidden. Two junior putti in the background sing from a score.
  • St Cecilia Playing the Organ, black chalk drawing on paper, 26.8 × 19.8 cm, Francesco Imperiali (1679–1740). London: British Museum, Inv. 1946,0713.904. Ref. Website: British Museum (2012-col.) Cecilia seated at the organ gazes heavenward. Behind her a standing angel plays a harp; before her another plays a one-piece pipe with a flared bell, probably a recorder. Beside her, a winged putto plays a long-necked lute. In the background two junior putti sing from a score.This has also been attributed to Pietro de Pietri (1633/5-1716). However, a chalk drawing bearing an old attribution to Imperiali, formerly in the collection of Sir John Clerk of Penicuik and of exactly the same design as the present drawing, presumably served as the basis for this attribution. The two drawings differ only in minor details; in general the ex-Penicuik study is more strongly outlined and includes a few extra details, such as the botanical motif decorating the corner of the harp nearest the head of the saint. Despite certain weaknesses in the Penicuik version, such as the rather awkward right leg of the angel playing a flute in the foreground at the left, the drawings could be by the same hand. Furthermore, another variant of this composition with an old attribution to Imperiali was offered at Christie’s (London) Sale 7605 on 8 July 2008, Lot 48 (see above).

Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres

French neo-classical draughtsman, painter of historical subjects and portraits, and teacher; worked in Paris, Rome and Florence; a keen amateur musician, he played the violin and gave to the French language a colloquialism, violon d’Ingres, meaning a hobby or avocation; born Montauban (1780), died (1867).

  • The Flautist, drawing, Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780–1867). Montauban: Musée Ingres. A seated youth plays a slender pipe (possibly a duct flute) – with three hands!

van Intol (late 17th century), Flemish

  • Musicans in a Tavern, oil on canvas, 78 × 108 cm, van Intol (late 17th century). Marseille: Musée des Beaux-Arts, Inv. 94. Ref. Joconde Website (1999). A tavern scene with an ensemble of musicians playing duct flute, violin, cello and an obscure wind instrument. Not seen.

Jane and Kathryn Irwin

Contemporary Canadian stained glass makers based in Toronto who have been collaborating for over 20 years specializing in producing custom window treatments and glass artworks for walls that modify light and enhance privacy; etching, painting and fusing techniques are used to balance flowing movement and organized structure, in careful compositions of colour, shape, texture and line. Artists’ web-site.

  • Angel Musician, stained glass window, Jane and Kathy Irwin (contemporary). Toronto: Cathedral of St Alban the Martyr. Ref. Website: Calliope’s Sister (2013-col.) A young angel plays an alto-sized neo-baroque recorder. The Cathedral (1883–1935) was consecrated but never completed. It is now part of Royal St George’s College.

Adriaen Isenbrandt [Isenbrant, Ysenbrant]

Flemish artist active in Bruges about whom little is known; it is thought that he is one and the same as the anonymous Master of the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin and the author of a large body of paintings previously attributed to Gerard David and Jan Mostaert, thus he is sometimes called the Pseudo-Mostaert; his paintings are meticulously executed and include portraits as well as religious subjects; possibly born in Haarlem or Antwerp (ca 1490), died Bruges (1551). See also Jan Mabuse.

  • Madonna and Child with Cherub Musicians (1540), tempera & oil on panel, 24.1 × 19.1 cm, Adriaen Isenbrandt (ca. 1490–m. 1551). San Diego: Museum of Art, 1939:018. Ref. Sopeña Ibañez & Gallego (1972: 97, col.); Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, 374.1.Is25.34[c]; Rasmussen (1999, Lute); Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Docmentatie 54582 (2010-b&w). Against a background comprising a town amongst hills, the Virgin sits on an elaborate throne, the Child on her lap. To the right, a cherub (winged putto) runs towards them with a parrot on his finger. Before her on the pedestal sit two more cherubs, one playing a tiny lute, the other a cylindrical pipe. The pipe is featureless, but the disposition of the little player’s fingers suggests a recorder.

Asher ben Isaac – see Asher ben Yitzhaq

Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov

Russian painter who adhered to the waning tradition of neoclassicism but found little sympathy with his contemporaries; lived and worked mostly in Rome, concentrating on religious subjects; has been called the master of one work, taking 20 years to complete his magnum opus The Appearance of Christ before the People (State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow); born and died St Petersburg (1806–1858); son of artist Andrei Ivanov.

  • Apollo, Hyacinthus and Cyparissus Singing and Playing Music (1831–1834), oil on canvas (unfinished), 100 × 139 cm, Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov (1806–1858 ). Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery. In mythology Cyparissus and Hyacinthus were favourite companions of Apollo. The latter, a young prince of Sparta, was so beautiful that Apollo fell in love with him but one day, while they were practicing throwing discus, Apollo’s discus changed its course and hit Hyacinthus on the head, killing him at once. Apollo was full of grief. To commemorate his name, he changed his friend’s blood into a flower. Cyparissus, a beautiful youth was also loved by Apollo. His favorite companion was a sacred stag, which he had tamed. Once, Cyparissus inadvertently killed the stag with his javelin. Full of grief he asked the gods for death. Instead, the gods turned him into a cypress, the tree of sadness. In this decidedly homo-erotic painting Apollo is depicted as a youth seated on some rocks at the edge of a forest, his left arm around one of his companions who leans against him, his right arm reaching out to touch the thigh of the other boy who kneels playing a flared bell duct flute, possibly a recorder since the player’s thumb is in the pinched position so characteristic of that instrument.

Francisco Hurtado Izquierdo

Spanish, early rococo architect, sculptor and frescoist whose buildings, marble altar-pieces and paintings are found in Cordoba and Granada; from his name, he may have been left-handed; born Lucena (1669), died Priego (1725).

  • Musical Angels, fresco, Francisco Hurtado Izquierdo (1669–1725). Granada: Monasterio de la Cartuja, underside of arch before the sacrarium (behind the high altar). Ref. Charles Rowland-Jones (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm., 2002). An angel putto plays a small pipe, possibly a recorder. Elsewhere a putto plays a shawm, his face all tensed, but the piper has relaxed cheeks. Except for his hands being almost opposite each other, the playing position is recorder-like, with wrists low. No details of the finger holes or window/labium are visible (the pipe points away from view).