Recorder Home Page Databases
fl 1724–ca 1753/57
Recorders by Johann Wolfgang Kenigsperger
Maker of recorders, oboes and chalumeaux.
Recorders by Klenig
Maker of walking-stick recorders, czakans, double recorders, piccolos and transverse flutes.
Recorders by Stephan Koch
Maker of recorders and oboes.
Recorders by Kress
Hieronimus Franciscus [Franciskus]
Hieronimus Franciscus Kynseker (b Nuremberg, 1636; d Nuremberg, 1686). Active as an instrument maker from 1673 until his death. Instruments by him include recorders, flageolets, and shawms.
Signed himself HF on all instruments (Kirnbauer 1992).
Recorders by Hieronimus Franciscus Kynseker
F Löhner II
Son of Johann Andreas (1768-1853), grandson of master turner Friedrich I (1737-).
Maker's mark: (fleur-de-lys)/F.LEHNER/FL/(monogram)
Watherhouse suggests that some of the instruments bearing this mark (not necessarily the recorders) may be of earlier manufacture.
MacMillan (2008: 47).
Recorders by Friedrich II Löhner
Maker of recorders, transverse flutes and oboes.
Recorders by Johann Jacob Lindner
Maker of recorders, transverse flutes and musettes.
Recorders by Lissieu
Thomas Lot (b La-Couture Boussey 1708; d Paris, 1787) came from a long line of woodwind-instrument makers native to the town of La Couture-Boussey in Normandy who operated businesses in Paris throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Thomas worked as an instrument maker from 1734 until his death. His output includes recorders, flageolets, double recorders and transverse flutes. He built flutes for many of the most prominent Parisian flutists of the early 18th century, including Michel Blavet, Mozart's friend Johann Baptist Wendling, and Jacques-Christophe Naudot. His instruments were also owned by many of the royal and aristocratic houses of Europe. See Giannini (1993).
Recorders by Thomas Lot
Pierre Naust (b La-Couture Boussey, 1660; d Paris, 1709) was active as an instrument maker in Paris from 1692 until his death. His output includes recorders, flageolets, transverse flutes, oboes and clarinets. His workshop was continued by his widow and other members of his family after his death until it was 1734 taken over by Thomas Lot by marrying into the Naust family. The flute in four joints might have been made for the first time in this workshop (before 1709), although this innovation is attributed to Charles Bizey as well.
Maker's marks: NAUST / (Brabant lion); (lion) / NAUST /A PARIS / (lion on all fours, facing right)
Recorders by Pierre Naust
Recorders by J. Neale
Johann Wilhelm I
Johann Wilhelm Oberlender I (b Nuremberg 1681; d Nuremberg 1763) worked as an instrument maker from 1705 until 1745. Father of Johann Wilhelm II (1712-1779) who was also a wind instrument maker in the workshop of Jacob Denner.
The I.W. OBERLENDER/O maker's mark is likely to have been used by other makers after the death of Johann Wilhelm I and Johann Wilhelm II (Kirnbauer 1992).
Recorders by Johann Wilhelm I Oberlender
Aldingen, Kreis Tutlingen, Markneukirchen; Germany
Rudolf Ottoo (1912-20040 was born in Markneukirchen, the son of merchant Richard Otto. He graduated as a master maker of woodwind instruments in 1939 but was building recorders as early as 1933 for his farther's firm. By 1937 he was selling them directly. He also made other instruments including clarinets, oboes and flutes. His range of recorders were in four categories: School recorders, consort recorders, "Werk" recorders and master recorders. His innovations included a block made of ebonite, a beak with a plastic sleeve, a wider surface for double holes, and a semitone key operated by the little finger of the left hand for the fourth degree of the recorder's natural scale. Otto also made vogtländischer-csakans with semitone keys.
Otto made recorders for Nagel (Hannover), Gustav Herrnsdorf (Markneukirchen) and Moeck (Celle). He also made Bärenreiter recorders for Max Hüller, notably alto recorders in f' after the Ruëtz model.
Thalheimer (2013: 76-70)
Recorders by Rudolf Otto
Bassoonist and woodwind instrument maker; born Carlo Pitteti in Valsesia (ca 1691); died Turin (1783). He was the son and pupil of the instrument maker Giovanni Lorenzo Palanca (c.1645-p.1705). From his hands came the greatest number and variety of instruments by any 18th-century Italian maker. He seems to have developed in isolation. Palanca suffered from loss of eyesight beginning in 1770 and his mark may have been used thereafter by another maker perhaps finishing Palanca's work.
Palanca's instruments are marked CARLO | PALANCA | [sun, star or flower]
Bernardini (1985); de Avena Braga (2015: 50-53, 314-315, 325-333, figs. 77-80, 95-109); Haynes (2001: 22); Olding (1997); Voice (2015).
Recorders by Carlo Palanca
born late 1740s
The Panormo family (originally from Palermo and then named 'Trusiano') was famous in several branches of lutherie in different parts of Europe. Giovanni
Panormo was born in Palermo (1746), died ? Naples (p. 1783). He was active as a woodwind instrument maker in Naples. Two
attributed to him are known to have been sold in 1783 to the
in Naples, though this seems rather late for recorders.
Panormo's stamp was IOAN: | PANORM: and variants including IOAN: | PANORM: | NEAPOLI and PANORM | E FIGLI | NAPOLI
de Avena Braga (2012; 2015: 53-54); Nocerino (2009: 795-797).
From 1697 on, Michiel Parent (a performer as well as a maker of wind instruments) was a member of the ‘Collegium Musicum’ which performed in Amsterdam in the summer and in The Hague in the winter. Notes from
Made double recorders of which he claimed to be the inventor. These had complex bores. A single example of his alto recorders survives, with a short foot and a remarkably narrow bore. He also made bassoons (Bouterse, 2001).
Recorders by Michiel Parent
Poerschman [Poerschmann, Pörschman\
Poerschman (b Wittenberg, 1680; d Leipzig, 1757) was a solo bassoonist and oboist with the Leipzig Grossen Conzertes (later the Gewandhuas Orchestra). He also was an instrument maker whose few surviving instruments include a recorder, several flutes, an oboe d'amore, and a bassoon. Poerschman taught two leading woodwind makers of the next generation, August Grenser and Jakob Brundmann.
Recorders by Johann Poerschman
RL & Co
R.L. & Co.
Recorders by R.L. & Co.
Rafi or Raffin
early 16c–?early 17c
Makers of recorders and transverse flutes active in Lyons in Southern France in the first half of the 16th century.
The earliest to be documented around 1500 is Jacques Pillon Michaud Raffin or Raphin (d. 1524), first heard of in 1506, was listed as
or flautist in 1512 and
faiseur de fleustes
(maker of flutes/recorders) in 1523. He was presumably the maker of the bass flute in Rome marked M. RAFI. He had two sons.
Michaud's illegitimate son Pierre is documented in 1528-1529 and may have been the maker Grece whose mark included the insignia of a sheep -- Machaud Rafi was known and referred to as "the good shepherd". Claude (op. c. 1515–m. 1553) apparently followed his brother in this profession. Claude's fame was celebrated by poets, including Marot, Ronsard and François de la Salle. The latter refers to the good recorder of Raffy in ? 1537.
The court of Mary of Hungary in Brussels ordered certain recorders from a master in Lyons in 1536 which may be the same as the certain large recorders with other instruments mentioned the next year. In 1546, the Accademia Filarmonica in Verona commissioned someone to send to Lyons to buy a consort [or pair] of flutes. Amazingly the Academia still owns a flute made by Claude Rafi, and the body of a bass flute.
A consort of eight large recorders sufficient for a consort, fourteen others large recorders for the consort, and four sets of fifes by the esteemed craftsman … Graffi are listed among the collection of Manfredo Settala, a Milanese physician, clergyman and instrument inventor, in 1664. Graffi is probably a misreading of Cl. Rafi
Maker's mark: (shield with griffin) / C·RAFI; C.·.RAFI; (shield with a ? Brabant lion) / C·RAFI; shield with a ? Brabant Lion; C.·.RAFI / (shield with griffin); G·RAFI / (shield with griffin). The griffin was the insignia of the Archishopric of Lyons and the emblem of an artisan's cooperative working in the S John Baptists cathedral district of Lyon, and its use indicated goods of exceptional quality.
The external profile of the
fluette a neuf trouz appellé par les italiens flauto
represented in Philibert Jamb de Fer's
Epitome Musical des tons, sons et accordz
(1556) and its publication in Lyon suggest that these instruments were built in the workshop of Claude Rafi.
Bär (1995); Brown & Lasocki (2006: 29); Puglisi (1995), Tiella (2004, 2005); Virghi & Law (2020).
Recorders by members of the Rafi family
Rauch von Schrattenbach [Schratt]
Schrattenbach (Allgäu), Austria
Maker of conventional and columnar recorders. A member of a family of wind instrument makers who are documented in the Bavarian hamlet of Schrattenbach from 1460 to 1595. One known maker named Hans married in 1490 and died in 1526, so our Hans was presumably his son.
Two recorders, one in Munich and another in Salzburg, bear the inscriptions HANS RAUCH VON SCHRATT. The latter is also engraved IHESUS MARIA ANNA 1535. Both instruments are stamped with a double trefoil with a right-pointing tail (Brown & Lasocki, 2006: 26).
The trefoil maker's mark depicted by Ganassi (
Opera intitulata Fontegara
(1535) is generally taken to represent Hans Rauch von Schrattenbach.
Recorders by Hans Rauch von Schrattenbach
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