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This abbreviation is used where the maker of an instrument is unknown or obscure.
Recorders by unknown makers
The Rožmberk Master
Rožmberk near Prachatitz, Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Maker's mark: two identical devices, each forming an elaborate cross resembling the letter A, but quite different to the mark on Schnitzer instruments.
The Sibiu bass with the W-and-crown mark may also be from Rožmberk Master (Bali, 2007).
Recorders by the Rožmberk Master
Abraham Van Aardenberg, born in Amsterdam in
1672, was Richard Haka’s pupil. He set up independently in 1698 and lived on Nieuwe Spiegelstraat. For nearly 20 years, until his death in 1717, he made traversi, recorders, oboes and bassoons. His recorders and oboes are exceptional in quality and style. Notes from
In many aspects Van Aardenberg made the most atypical recorders. Not only are the turned profiles very characteristic, so are the form of the labium, the joint bore and the finger-hole features, which differ from all of the recorders by Dutch and foreign woodwind makers. Notes from
His stamps are of three kinds each including various forms of AARDENBERG in a scroll and one or three fleurs de lis; two kinds also feature a device representing a leaping deer.
Recorders by Abraham Van Aardenberg
The firm of Johannes Adler had its roots in the world-famous Musikwinkel of the upper Vogtland - a picturesque region in the south-western part of Saxony. It was established in 1924 by Johannes Adler (1899-1963), grandson of the instrument maker Johann Gottlob Adler (1825-1900), who founded the family workshop in Markneukirchen in 1881, and son of Robert Oswald Adler (1863 -1946). Johannes Adler became well-known through the manufacture and sale of recorders.
Prior to the fall of the Iron Curtain, Johannes Adler joined forces with Alexander Heinrich who, as Adler-Heinrich GmbH, produced a wide range of recorders. They ceased production in 2007.
The first recorders offered by Johannes Adler were supplied by Martin Kehr and Max König & Söhne. It is presumed that Johannes Adler and his father Robert Oswald commenced their own recorder production in 1934 under director of woodwind instrument making was Kurt Weck, who had learned his trade from Robert Oswald Adler. It is not known if he was also responsible for actual recorder making.
Innovations in recorder design made by the Johannes Adler workshop include instruments with recessed finger-holes, a perforated plateau key which enabled true accidentals to be played when partially opened, a model named "Superbal" with a labium with raised carved sides, and the "Knickbas" made from 1837/1938.
Thalheimer (2013: 49).
Recorders by Adler
Giovanni [Johannes] Maria
Milan & Venice, Italy
Italian maker of recorders, flutes d'accord, transverse flutes, oboes and bassoons; op. Milan (1709-1741). His full name is known to us from the marks on only two instruments, namely Ioannes Maria Anciuti on a contra-bassoon and Anciutus on a double recorder. His other surviving instruments, which are often made of ivory, include recorders and double recorders, oboes, a bass flute and, possibly, a flute.
Until recently, Anciuti was thought to to be a pseudonym, an appropriate one for a maker of reed (It.
) instruments. This was an expedient sometimes used in the 18th century by makers who wished to evade the rigid rules of the guild. However, it is now known that Anciut's name is a proper name originating from Carnia, a mountain region north of Udine and that he was a native of Forno di Sopra in the Venetian State (Careras & Meroni, 2008). Significantly, the winged Lion of Venice device, symbol of the Venetian Republic, appears on numerous examples of Anciuti's work.
Maker's mark: [lion of St Mark] | ANCIVTI | A MILAN(O)
Voice (2014: 97) suggests that Giovanni was most likely to have done his apprenticeship with a family workshop in Venice.
Recorders by Giovanni Maria Anciuti
Bassano, Venice, London
Anglo-Venetian family of outstanding musicians, composers and instrument makers whose products were distributed throughout Europe.
Jacomo (died 1559/66) was active as woodwind player to the Doge of Venice, and as a woodwind maker. With his son-in-law Gritti, he made consorts of flutes, recorders, shawms, cornetts and crumhorns.
Five Bassano brothers, migrated from Venice to England in the 1530s where they provided a recorder consort at the royal court for 90 years, and spread their fame as instrument makers throughout Europe: Jeronimo I (d ca 1545), Alvise (d 1554), Anthony I (d 1574), Jacomo (d ca 1558), John (d 1570).
The family owned a workshop near to the centre of London around 1544-1552, and is probable that they also acted as purveyors to the court of Henry VIII, of which a long list of instruments exist dated 1547.
An inventory made in Augsburg in 1566 reports gross Fuetter darina 27 flötten, gross und klain, so in Engellandt gemacht werden. It is likely that the 45 instruments recorded in an inventory from 1571 at the Muenchener Court (shawm, crumhorn, cornett, recorder) were also made by the Bassano brothers: so zu London gemacht seind worden, von der Bassani bruedern.
Arthur (1547-1624), seems to be the person meant in a contemporary English document which notes: Mr. Barsano, one of his Majesty's musicians who makes fine instruments. His son Anthony II (1579-1658) is also recorded as a maker of musical instruments.
Makers marks: The assignment of the various silkworm marks to specific members or generations of this family is still a matter of speculation.
It is possible that the maker's mark 'B' depicted by Ganassi (
Opera intitulata Fontegara
, 1535) refers to instruments by members of the Bassano family.
Brown & Lasocki (2006) suggest that the maker of recorders stamped HIE·S and HIER·S may have been Jeronimo Bassano, rather than the Hieronimo de li flauti from the latter part of the century. Brown (pers. comm., 2007) reports that the HIER·S· basset in Sibiu was made using the same reamer as the HIERS· and HIE·S bassets in Vienna (SAM 160 & 161), and that the Sibiu bass also looks pretty similar to one of the HIES basses in Vienna.
Recorders by members of the Bassano family
Maker of recorders and dulcians.
Recorders by Andreas Bauer/Bauermann
Willem, Sr. & Jr.
Willem senior was born in Utrecht in 1666, his son in Amsterdam in 1703. They spent most of their lives in Amsterdam, where they lived on Korte Dijkstraat. Both made recorders, flutes and oboes. Beukers senior died in 1750; the son died in 1781. Notes from
Makers marks: Their recorders are variously stamped with a sheaf of wheat or a crown, namely W BEUKERS / (sheaf of wheat); (crown) / W: BEUKERS; (crown) / W:BEUKERS / (sheaf of wheat) Those stamped with a sheaf of wheat were probably made by Beukers Sr and are generally better finished than those stamped with a crown (Bouterse, 2001 & 2003).
Recorders by Willem Beukers, Sr & Jr
Maker of wind-instruments, including recorders, flutes, oboes, rackets and bassoons. His career began in Paris where he worked from 1716 until 1752. Archival documents reveal that Charles Bizey, Prudent (Thierriot) and Dominique Porthaux were master makers at the same workshop on the rue Dauphine, in the parish of St André des Arts, first established by Bizey, c. 1745 when he moved from the rue Mazarin, his location from c. 1716, the year he became a master maker in Paris. He was the first French maker to provide the one-keyed flute with alternate upper middle joints of varying length. And his is the earliest known bass oboe.
Maker's marks: (fleur-de-lys) / BIZEY, (fleur-de-lys) / BIZEY / A PARIS / (sun)
Recorders by Charles Bizey
Thomas Boekhout, born in Kampen (Overijssel) in 1666, died Amsterdam (1715), trained with Jan de Jager (1658-1692)), whose niece, Barbera de Jager, he married. He lived in Amsterdam on Keizersgracht and Kerkstraat. In 1713 he advertised in the Amsterdamse Courant, that he maekt en verkoopt alle soort van Fluyten, Hobois . . . Bas Fluyten die al haar tonen geven als op een gemeene Fluyt, en een niuw soort van Bassoons beyde door hem geinventeert (makes and sells all kinds of recorders, oboes . . . bass recorders which give all the notes as on a normal recorder, and a new sort of bassoon, both invented by him). In 1731 the inventory of the Marienkirche at Danzig listed a recorder made by him.
Jager's son Frederik assisted him between 1694 and 1707.
Thomas Boekhout made recorders (his basset recorders are famous), transverse flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassoons. Notes from
Some of his basset recorders were made with an extra key on hole 3 so that the same fingering as that of an alto could be use. His single-keyed bassets are were made in several models. Thus he seems to have experimented with basset recorders (Bouterse, 2001).
Maker's mark: (crown) / T·BOEKHOUT / (Brabant lion); (crown) / T BOEKHOUT / (Brabant lion)
Recorders by Thomas Boekhout
1693 - ca1765
Philip Borkens was born in Amsterdam in 1693.
He was granted citizenship on 4th January 1724.
Borkens lived initially in Buiten Bantammerstraat and later in Goudsbloemstraat. Flutes, oboes and clarinets are known by him. He must have died around 1765. Notes from
His only surving recorder, a soprano in c', is one of the most beautiful and best playable historical baroque recorders (Bouterse, 2001).
Makers mark: (crown) / P·BORKENS / (Brabant lion)
Recorders by Philip Borkens
Maker of recorders and oboes. Halfpenny (1959) relates that Bradbury 'was an almost exactly contemporary of Stanesby I ... beside whom he worked for five years as a fellow apprentice in the workshop of Thomas Garrett, their master'. However, the Turners’ records say nothing about how long Bradbury remained an apprentice of Garrett. They show only that Stanesby had been apprenticed for about a year and a half before Bradbury arrived.
Recorders by Joseph Bradbury
Paris & London
Born Bourg-en-Bresse (1663), Bressan was apprenticed to the woodturner Pierre Boissier between 1678 and 1680. He was making recorders in Paris between 1680 and 1683. There is little to indicate that his style was influenced by other French makers of the time, although his instruments resemble those of Rippert.
From 1683, Bressan was working in England, probably at the invitation of the recorder player Jacques Paisible. According to a 1691 archive, he was oboist in the service of King William III. He left England in 1730 due to financial troubles and died shortly after in early 1731 at Tournai.
His output includes recorders, transverse flutes and oboes. Amongst those who followed in his footsteps were Bradbury, Schuchardt, Stanesby Snr and Jr, and Urquhart. Bressan also published music by Castrucci and Barsanti.
Maker's mark: P u I / BRESSAN / (Lancastrian rose). The 'u' appears to be a horseshoe-shaped hyphen.
Recorders by Peter Bressan
London, Great Britain (England, United Kingdom, GB, UK)
Maker of recorders, flutes and bassoons. His workshop was in the Strand, London as early as 1755 where he took his two sons into partnership. He also published music and sold violins.
Recorders by Thomas Cahusac Jr or Sr
Carandet or Cavaudet
Recorders by Carandet
Maker of recorders, transverse flutes, and oboes who in 1765 seems to have succeeded Charles Schuchart (1720-1765) to whom he may have been apprenticed. It has been suggested that instruments stamped with a Brabant lion (including a recorder) were made for Collier by another maker.
Recorders by Thomas Collier
early 18th century
Flanders, but has been considered French
The reading of the mark de Bey is Dutch (ie de bij) and means the bee. Thus Debey was most likely Flemish, as is suggested by the design of his recorders.
Other extant instruments by him include an oboe (GB: Oxford) and an incomplete oboe d’amore (B: Brugges).
Maker's mark: I/DEBEY·/bee (seen front on)
Recorders by Debey
Jacob Denner (b Nuremberg, 1681; d Nuremberg, 1735), the eldest son of the instrument maker Johann Christoph Denner (born Leipzig), continued his father's work, making recorders, flutes, oboes and clarinets. And he worked for the Medecis court in Florence in 1708 and received his Master's rights in 1716. He was employed at several courts as Stadtmusicus (city musician) and oboist (eg. at Bayreuth and Ansbach).
Doppelmayr (1730) describes Jacob Denner as not only a world-famous master of his own and other instruments but … specially remarkable for his oboe playing. See Kirnbauer & Thalheimer (1995). It seems that Jacob's younger brother, Johann David, took over their father's shop, while Jacob started his own.
Maker's mark: I·Denner (in scroll with rolled up ends) / I(fir tree)D
'Denner' is an old German word for the pine tree; hence the depiction of a pine.
Recorders by Jacob Denner
Johann Christoph Denner (b Leipzig, 1655: d Nuremberg, 1707) was the son of Heinrich Denner, a turner of game whistles and hunting horns. His earlier instruments are renaissance in style, but about 1684 when new-style instruments were brought into Germany from France, Denner was quick to realize the advantage to be gained from adopting the new designs. His workmanship was of such a quality that he soon gained fame beyond his own country. His surviving instruments include recorders, shawms, oboes, rackets, bassoons, rackets, and the clarinet. The invention of both the baroque racket and the clarinet have been credited to Denner.
Maker's mark: ·I·C DENNER (scrolled)/ D
On the foot-joint of one of his early instruments there is a stamp I.C. (Johann Denner ?) and Felbinger 1682. Felbinger may have been the owner of the instrument.
The I.C. DENNER mark was clearly used by other makers after Denner’s death in 1707, through the mid-eighteenth century (Kirnbauer 1992).
Recorders made by Johann Christoph Denner
Haslemere, Great Britain (England, United Kingdom, GB, UK)
Arnold Dolmetsch (b Le Mans, 1858; d Haslemere, 1940) was very influential on late 19th and 20th century attitudes to scholarship and performing practice, especially through the reconstruction of obsolete instruments, amongst them the viol, the lute, the harpsichord and the recorder.
Arnold completed his first recorder in 1919. He passed responsibility for the research and production of recorders to his son, Carl Dolmetsch, in 1926.
A number of craftsman were employed to make recorders at Dolmetsch over the years, including Robert Goble (1924-1937) and Oskar Dawson (1930-1941). Arnold Dolmestch's work is continued by members of his family to this day.
For biographical details see
The Edmonton firm Insulators Ltd made the tools to produce the plastic recorders designed by Carl Dolmetsch in 1946. They were were later mass produced by Boosey & Hawkes.
Recorders made by Arnold Dolmetsch
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