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1100 1200 MS, Glasgow University Anonymous … fistula anglica … View
1174 1272 Altercacio inter filomenam et bubonem: The owl and the nightingale attributed to Nicholas de Guildford Þe niȝtingale bigon þe speche
In one hurne of one breche,
And sat up one vaire boȝe –
Þar were abute blosme inoȝe –
In ore vaste þicke hegge,
Imeind mid spire and grene segge.
Ho was þe gladur vor þe rise
And song a vele cunne wise.
Bet þuȝte þe dreim þat he were
Of harpe and pipe þan he nere,
Bet þuȝte þat he were ishote
Of harpe and pipe þan of þrote.

The nightingale began the argument in the corner of a clearing, and perched on a beautiful branch – there was plenty of blossom around it – in an impenetrable thick hedge, with reeds and green sedge growing through it. She was all the happier because of the branch, and sang in many different ways; the music sounded as if it came from a harp or a pipe rather than from a living throat.

Ac þu singest alle longe niȝt
From eve fort hit is dailiȝt,
And evre leist þin o song
So longe so þe niȝt is long,
And evre croweþ þi wrecche crei
Þat he ne swikeþ niȝt ne dai.
Mid þine pipinge þu adunest
Þas monnes earen þar þu wunest
And makest þine song so unwurþ
Þat me ne telþ of þar noȝt wurþ.
Evrich mur3þe mai so longe ileste
Þat ho shal liki wel unwreste;
Vor harpe and pipe and fuȝeles song
Mislikeþ ȝif hit is to long.

But you sing all night long, from evening till dawn, and your song lasts as long as the night does, and your wretched throat keeps on trilling without stopping, night or day. You constantly assault the ears of those who live around you with your piping, and make your song so cheap that it loses all its value. Every pleasure can last so long that it ceases to please; because harp and pipe and birdsong all grow tiresome if they last too long. However delightful a song may be, it will seem very tedious if it goes on longer than we would like.
1295 1338 Manipulus Florum: Ecclesia Thomas de Hibernia (fl. 1295-1338) Said (in error) by Grattan Flood (1905) to mention the recorder by name. View
1300 1400 King Richard Coeur de Lion: 3417-3430 Anonymous At noon "a laver" the waytes blew;
Þe messangeres naught ne newe
Richaryds law ne hys custome.
Sade the kyng: "Frendes ye are welcome!"
To hem he was cumpanyable,
Þey were set a syde table.
Salt was set on but, no bred,
Ne watyr, ne wyn, whyt ne red.
The Sarazynes sate, and gunne to stare,
And thought: "Allas, how schal we fare?"
King Richard was set on des,
With dukes and earlys prowd in pres;
Fro kechene com þe fyrste cours,
WiÞ pypes, and trumpes, and tabours.

[At noon a fanfare the waits blew;
The messengers nothing knew
of Richard's law or his customs.
Said the king: "Friends, you are welcome!"
To them he was companionable,
They were set aside a table.
Salt was set on it, but no bread,
No water, no wine, white or red.
The Saracens sat and began to stare,
And thought: "Alas, how shall we fare?"
King Richard was set on a dias,
With proud dukes and earls in threes;
From the kitchen came the first course,
With pipes and trumpets, and tabors.]
1300 1400 Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight: verse vi, lines 118-122 Anonymous Þen þe first cors come with crakkyng of trumpes,
Wyth mony baner ful bryȝt þat þerbi henged;
Nwe nakryn noyse with þe noble pipes,
Wylde werbles and wyȝt wakned lote,
Þat mony hert ful hiȝe hef at her towches.

[Then the first course came in with a blaring of trumpets,
Which were hung with many bright banners.
A new noise of nakers with the noble pipes,
Wild and stirring melodies wakened the echoes;
That many a heart leapt full high at their tones.]
1300 1400 King Richard Coeur de Lion: 6676-6687 & 6705-6716 Anonymous It was before the heygh myd nyght,
The moon and the sterres schon ful bryght,
Kyng Richard unto Jaffe was come,
With hys galeyes alle and some.
They lokyd towarde the castel,
They herd no pype ne flagel.
They drowgh hem nygh to the lande
Yiff they might undyrstande;
And they ne cowde nought aspye,
Be no voys of menstralsye,
That quyk man in the castel ware.

Thus waylys Kyng Richard ay
Tyl it were spryng al off the day:
A wayte ther come in a kernel,
And pyped a moot in a flagel.
He ne pyped but on sythe,
He made many an herte blythe.
He lokyd doun, and seygh the galeys,
Kyng Richard is icomen to us!
Thenne a meryere not e blew,
And pypyed: 'Seynyours! or suis! or sus! [Lords! Wake up! Wake up!]
Kyng Richard is icomen to us!'
c. 1488   Sir Orfeo: Harley 3810 Anonymous 286 With esy pace and wele avysed,
287 Taberis and pypes yeden hem by
288 And alle maner of mynstrelsy;
289 And ladyes ther com rydyng,
290 Joly they wer in alle thing;
291 Jentle and jolef, forsothe, y wys.
±1300   Kyng Alisaunder, Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates 19.2.1   7760 Kandidus wroþ went oway
& no com oȝain nouȝt mani a day.
Þo þe cloþ was ydrawe
Þe waite gan a flegel blawe,
Alisaunder & Candace
To chaumber token her pas,
So we finden on þe boke,
Þat niȝt þe king his leue toke
He went to Ynde to his barouns
Bi wodes, bi dales & bi tounes;
Leue he had wiþ morni[n]ge
& went forþ in þe daweinge
Bi an heȝe way þat he kneu
Til þat he com to Tholomeu.
1379 1380 House of Fame 3:1215. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) And eke in ech of the pynacles
Weren sondry habitacles,
In which stoden, al withoute –
Ful the castel, al aboute –
Of alle maner of mynstralles
And gestiours that tellen tales
Both of wepinge and of game,
1200 Of al that longeth unto Fame.
Ther herde I pleyen on an harpe,
That sowned bothe wel and sharpe,
Orpheus ful craftely,
And on his syde, faste by,
Sat the harper Orion,
And Eacides Chiron,
And other harpers many oon,
And the Bret Glascurion;
And smale harpers with her glees
1210 Sate under hem in dyvers sees,
And gunne on hem upward to gape,
And countrefete hem as an ape,
Or as craft countrefeteth kynde.
Tho saugh I stonden hem behynde,
Afer fro hem, al be hemselve,
Many thousand tymes twelve,
That maden lowde mynstralcies
In cornemuse and shalemyes,
And many other maner pipe,
1220 That craftely begunne to pipe,
Bothe in doucet and in rede,
That ben at festes with the brede;
And many flowte and liltyng horn,
And pipes made of grene corn,
As han thise lytel herde-gromes
That kepen bestis in the bromes.
1379 1380 House of Fame 3: 773,774. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Thus every thing, by thys reson,
Hath his propre mansyon
To which hit seketh to repaire,
Ther-as hit shulde not apaire.
Loo, this sentence ys knowen kouth
Of every philosophres mouth,
As Aristotle and daun Platon,
760 And other clerkys many oon;
And to confirme my resoun,
Thou wost wel this, that spech is soun,
Or elles no man myghte hyt here;
Now herke what y wol the lere.
"Soun ys noght but eyr ybroken;
And every speche that ys spoken,
Lowd or pryvee, foul or fair,
In his substaunce ys but air;
For as flaumbe ys but lyghted smoke,
770 Ryght soo soun ys air ybroke.
But this may be in many wyse,
Of which I wil the twoo devyse,
As soun that cometh of pipe or harpe.
For whan a pipe is blowen sharpe
The air ys twyst with violence
And rent -- loo, thys ys my sentence.
Eke whan men harpe-strynges smyte,
Whether hyt be moche or lyte,
Loo, with the strok the ayr tobreketh.
1340 1475 Canterbury Tales, Prologue 79-92. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) With hym ther was his sone, a yong SQUIER,
80 A lovyere and a lusty bacheler;
With lokkes crulle, as they were leyd in presse.
Of twenty yeer of age he was, I gesse.
Of his stature he was of evene lengthe,
And wonderly delyvere, and of greet strengthe.
85 And he hadde been somtyme in chyvachie
In Flaundres, in Artoys, and Pycardie,
And born hym weel, as of so litel space,
In hope to stonden in his lady grace.
Embrouded was he, as it were a meede,
90 Al ful of fresshe floures, whyte and reede;
Syngynge he was, or floytynge, al the day,
He was as fressh as is the monthe of May.
Short was his gowne, with sleves longe and wyde.
Wel koude he sitte on hors, and faire ryde.
95 He koude songes make, and wel endite,
Juste, and eek daunce, and weel purtreye and write.
So hoote he lovede, that by nyghtertale
He slepte namoore than dooth a nyghtyngale.
Curteis he was, lowely, and servysable,
100 And carf biforn his fader at the table.
1369   The Romaunt of the Rose: 763-765. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) 762 And folk dance and merry bene
763 Ther myghtist though see these flowtours,
764 Mynstrales, and eke joglelours,
765 That wel to synge did her peyne;
766 Somme sone songes of Loreyne,
767 For in Lorynher notes bee
768 Full swerter than in this contre.
1369   The Romaunt of the Rose: 4247-4251. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) 4247 Discordant ever fro armonge
4248 And distoned from melodye
4249 Controve he wolde and foule fayle
4250 With hornepipes of Cornewaile.
4251 In floytes made he discordance
  ≤1359 Campus Florum Thomas Wallensis (Walleys, Waleys)   View
1387   Polychronicon: 1.409.16 Ranulf Higden They haueth in greet mangerie
Harpe, tabor, and pype for mynstralcie.
1388   Household accounts of the Earl of Derby, 30 September 1388 (folio 16v), Public Records Office, London, DL 28 1/2. Hugh de Waterton (a.1373–1409) From accounts for 30 September 1388 in a section headed Necessaria; having dealt with 12 'orange apples' and with repairing a mirror it says:

Et pro j fistula nomine Recordour empta London' pro domino iij s iij d

1398   De proprietatibus rerum [On the Properties of Things]: 19.133.943 Bartholomaeus Anglicus [Bartomew de Glanville] (a.1203–m.1272) Tibia is a pype, and hath that name for it was fyrste made of legges of hartes, yonge and olde, as men trowe; and the noyse of pypes was called Other, as Hugucion sayth. This name Tibia comyth of Tibium, that is a rushe, other a rede, and therof comyth this name Tibicen a pypere, and was somtyme an instrument of doole and lamentacyon, whyche men dyde use in office and sepultures of deed men, as the Gloce sayth super Matheum IX. and thereby the songe was songe of doole and of lamentacyon. View
1398   De proprietatibus rerum [On the Properties of Things]: 19.134.943,944 Bartholomaeus Anglicus [Bartholomew de Glanville] (a.1203–m.1272) Calamus hath that name of thys worde Calando, sowning; and is the generall name of pypes. A pype hyghte Fistula, for voyce comyth therof. For voyce hyghte Fes in Grewe, and send, Istola in Grewe. And soo the pype hyghte Fistula, as it were sendyng oute voyce other sowne. Hunters useth this instrument, for hartes louyth the noyse therof. But whyle the harte taketh hede and likynge in the pypynge of an hunter, another hunter whyche he hath no knowlege of, comyth and shoteth at the harte and sleeth hym. Pypyng begyleth byrdes and foules, therefore it is sayd "the pype syngeth swetely whyle the fowler begyleth the byrde." And shepe louyth pypynge, therfore shepeherdes usyth pipes whan they walk wyth theyr shepe. Therefore one whyche was callyd Pan was callyd God of hirdes, for he joyned dyverse redes, and arayed them to songe slyghly and craftely. Virgil spekyth therof, and sayth that Pan ordeyned fyrst to join [in one horne] Pan hath cure of shepe and of shepherdes. And the same instrument of pypes hyghte Pan donum, for Pan was fynder therof as Ysyder sayth. And wyth pipes watchynge men pleyseth suche men as restyth in beddes, and makyth theym slepe the sooner and more swetly by melodye of pypes. View
1425 unknown The Laud Troy Book, Bodleian Library, Laud Misc. 595 Anonymous [139. They [the Greeks] set Watches and kindle Fires ; in the Morning they take up Arms.]

Mules & hors bene put to cracche,
And afftir that thei sette here wacche
With sicur men that wolde not slepe,
On euery a side that ost to kepe;
Thei dede falle bothe oke and plane
And made fir In euery a lane,
That men myght se bothe ner and ferre
Our-al a-boute In eueryche a corner;
The fires ^euen a gret lyght,
As of hit hadde ben day-lyght.
Mynstralles her pipes hente
And alle other of Instrumente,
Thei nakered, piped, and blew,
Vnto that the Cokkes crew.
And thus was thanne the sege be-gonne,
That laste ten 3er, or Troye was wonne;
git was it neuere wonne with fyght,
With the Gregeis, ne with ther myght;
Hit was be-trayed falsly Alas !
With Antenor and Eueas.

[They anchor their ships.]

Hit is day, the Cok hath crowen,
Many an horn thanne was blowen,
Many an horn and many a pipe;
Thei be-gan her Armure gripe
Bothe In feld and In toun;
Thei rered many a gomfanoun,
Baneres brode of fyne asure,
Grene, and white, of purpur pure,
Some were rede as vermyloun,
With pelotes, daunse, and Cheueroun,
Some with sauters engrele,
And some with bastouw wouerle,
Off sable some, of siluer fyn,
And some of hem began to schyn.

[218 Hector kills Octomene. A Fight between Dwmedes and Antipe.]

Diodemes and kyng Antipe,
With-oute trompe or pipe
Or any other Melodye,
Thei redyn to-geder with gret envye;
Here speres brast In splentes,
But thei fel not with here dentes,
With that lustyng ne that lornay.
But thei jede not quyte a-way:
Thei drow here swerdes of here scauberkis
And smot on scheldes and hauberkes,
The rynges barst, the nayles out,
Thei were strawed al a-bout;
Her woundes bledde, her flescfi was tamet,
The holest of hem ful sore was lamet.
But at the laste be-tydde it so,
That Diodemes smot In-two

[242 Both Trojans and Greeks are glad of the Truce: they make merry.]

These lordes toke leue of the kyng
And wente horn al hying;
And to the Gregais horn he brynges
Off his trewis gode tydynges
That thei of Troie hath graunt the trewes.
Then myjt men here many glewes,
Pipe and Trompe, and many nakeres,
Synfan, lute, and Citoleres;
Ther was so many a daunce.
Thei made tho gret puruyaunce
Off corn and hay, of wyn and otes,
And thei songen wel merie notes;
Thei hele her woundes In gret quiete,
With mochel loye thei dronke and ete.
And thei of Troye were as fayn
Off here reste, bothe knyjt & swayn.
1398   De proprietatibus rerum [On the Properties of Things]: 19.135.943,944 Bartholomaeus Anglicus [Bartholomew de Glanville] (a.1203–m.1272) Sambuca is the Ellerne tree brotyll, and the bowes therof ben holowe, and voyde and smothe; and of those same bowes ben pipes made, and also some maner symphony, as Ysyder sayth. View
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